The Spirituality Questionnaire: Core Dimensions of Spirituality
Jochen Hardt, Sonja Schultz, Carola Xander, Gerhild Becker, Malgorzata Dragan
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31017   PDF   HTML     15,419 Downloads   25,349 Views   Citations


Various approaches are used to assess spirituality via questionnaires, ranging from one-dimensional scales to highly multidimensional models. For the present investigation, an – in spirituality research unorthodox – factor analytic method was chosen: principal axis analysis with oblique rotation. An item collection was examinated and cross-validated via internet. The spirituality questionnaire contains four dimensions: belief in God, search for meaning, mindfulness, and feeling of security. They present with high internal consistencies. The factorial structure of the four dimensions was confirmed. Based on the better fit of this method of extraction the authors assume that these dimensions may depict the concept of spirituality more precisely than the previously used factor analytic methods, i.e. the principal component analysis (PCA) with orthogonal rotation.

Share and Cite:

Hardt, J. , Schultz, S. , Xander, C. , Becker, G. & Dragan, M. (2012). The Spirituality Questionnaire: Core Dimensions of Spirituality. Psychology, 3, 116-122. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Religious orientation and prejustice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-443. doi:10.1037/h0021212
[2] Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., et al. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assess- ment, 11, 191-206. doi:10.1177/1073191104268029
[3] Balboni, T. A., Vanderwerker, L. C., et al. (2007). Religiousness and spiritual support among advanced cancer patients and associations with end-of-life treatment preferences and quality of life. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 555-560. doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.07.9046
[4] Daniel Batson, & Larry Ventis, W. (1985). Misconception of quest: A reply to hood and morris. Review of Religious Research, 26, 398-407. doi:10.2307/3511053
[5] Brown, K. W., & Ryan, M. (2003). The benefits of being present: The role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. Journal of Persona- lity and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
[6] Büssing, A. (2006). Spirituality—what are we talking about? [Spiritualit?t—Worüber reden wir?] In A. Büssing, T. Ostermann, & Matthiesen, P. F. (Eds.), Spirituality, disorder and cure—Meaning and expression of spirituality in medicine [Spiritualit?t, Krankheit und Heilung—Bedeutung und Ausdrucksformen der Spiritualit?t in der Medizin] (pp 11-24). Frankfurt am Main: VAS-Verlag.
[7] Büssing, A., Ostermann, T., & Matthiesen, P. F. (2006). Distinct expressions of vital spirituality. Journal of Religion and Health, 46, 267-286.
[8] Carlson, L. E., & Brown, K. W. (2005). Validation of the mindful attention awareness scale in a cancer population. Journal of Psycho- somatic Research, 58, 29-33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.04.366
[9] Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 23-33. doi:10.1007/s10865-007-9130-7
[10] Cervantes, J. M. (2010). Mestizo spirituality: Toward an integrated approach to psychotherapy for Latina/OS. Psychotherapy (Chic), 47, 527-539. doi:10.1037/a0022078
[11] Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioural sciences. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[12] Erikson, E. H. (1998). The life cycle completed. New York, NY: W W Northon & Co. [Der vollst?ndige Lebenszyklus (1995). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp].
[13] Flannelly, K. J., & Galek, K. (2006). Discipline and sex differences in religiosity and spirituality among health care professionals. Psycho- logical Reports, 99, 803-804.
[14] Flugel Colle, K. F., Vincent, A., et al. (2010). Measurement of quality of life and participant experience with the mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16, 36-40. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.06.008
[15] Frankl, V. (1964). The image of man of psychotherapy. In M. Friedman (Eds.), The worlds of Existentialism (pp 462-468). New York, NY: Random House.
[16] Fromm, E. (1950). Psychoanalysis and und Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press.
[17] Gall, T. L., Charbonneau, C., et al. (2011). The relationship between religious/spiritual factors and perceived growth following a diagnosis of breast cancer. Psychology & Health, 26, 287-305. doi:10.1080/08870440903411013
[18] Gorsuch, R. L. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis: its role in item analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 532-560. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6803_5
[19] Grossman, P., Niemann, L., et al. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis. Journal of Psycho- somatic Research, 57, 35-43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7
[20] Grossmann, K. E., & Grossmann, K. (2007). The development of psychological security in attachment—Results and conclusions for therapy [Die Entwicklung psychischer Sicherheit in Bindungen— Ergebnisse und Folgerungen für die Therapie]. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 53, 9-28.
[21] Hall, R. (2010). Intervention with Muslim Filipino families: The implications of spirituality for psychology. Psychology, 1, 45-49. doi:10.4236/psych.2010.11007
[22] Hardt, J., Petrak, F., et al. (2003). What does the FKV measure? An examination of the Freiburger Fragebogen zur Krankheitsverarbei- tung in patients with varying diseases [Was misst der FKV? Eine überprüfung des Freiburger Fragebogens zur Krankheitsverarbeitung bei Patienten mit unterschiedlichen Erkrankungen]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 32, 41-50. doi:10.1026//1616-3443.32.1.41
[23] Heszen-Niejodek, I. (2003). Illusory assumptions of self-report questionnaires. [Iluzorycznosc zalozen kwestionariuszy samoopisowych] In M. Fajkowska-Stanik, K. Drat-Ruszczak, & M. Marsza-Wis- niewska (Eds.), Methodological traps in empirical studies [Pulapki metodologiczne w badaniach empirycznych] (pp. 50-59). Warzawa: Academica Wydawnictwo SWPS.
[24] Idler, E. L., Musick, M. A., et al. (2003). Measuring multiple dimen- sions of religion and spirituality for health research. Research on Aging, 25, 327-365. doi:10.1177/0164027503025004001
[25] Ishida, R., & Okada, M. (2011). Factors influencing the development of “purpose in life” and its relationship to coping with mental stress. Psychology, 2, 29-34. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.21005
[26] James, A., & Wells, A. (2003). Religious orientation and mental health: towards a cognitive behavioural framework. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 359-376. doi:10.1348/135910703322370905
[27] Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York, NY: Delacorte.
[28] Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., et al. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118667.001.0001
[29] Koenig, H. G., Parkerson Jr., G. R., et al. (1997). Religion index for psychiatric research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 885-886.
[30] Kohls, N. S., & Walach, S. (2009). Facets of mindfulness—Results of an online study investigating the Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 224-230. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.009
[31] Kohr, H. U. (1976). ITAMIS. A user oriented Fortran-program for test- and questionnaire analysis [ITAMIS. Ein benutzerorientiertes Fortran-Programm zur Test- und Fragebogenanalyse]. Berichte aus dem Sozialwissenschaftlichen Institut der Bundeswehr.
[32] Lakey, C. E., Campbell, W. K., et al. (2007). Dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of the severity of gambling outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1698-1710. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.05.007
[33] Lawler-Row, K. A., & Elliott, J. (2009). The role of religious activity and spirituality in the health and well-being of older adults. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 43-52. doi:10.1177/1359105308097944
[34] Moberg, D. O. (2005). Research in spirituality, religion and aging. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45, 11-40. doi:10.1300/J083v45n01_02
[35] Mofidi, M., Devellis, R. F., et al. (2006). Spirituality and depressive symptoms in a racially diverse US sample of community-dwelling adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194, 975-977. doi:10.1097/
[36] Mofidi, M., DeVellis, R. F., et al. (2007). The relationship between spirituality and depressive symptoms: testing psychosocial mecha- nisms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 681-688. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31811f4038
[37] Mohr, S., Huguelet, P. (2004). The relationship between schizophrenia and religion and its implications for care. Swiss Medical Weekly, 134, 369-376.
[38] Monod, S., Brennan, M., Rochat, E., Martin, E., Rochat, S., & Bula, C.J. (2011). Instruments measuring spirituality in clinical research: a systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26, 1345- 1357. doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1769-7
[39] Nicholson, A., Rose, R., et al. (2010). Associations between different dimensions of religious involvement and self-rated health in diverse European populations. Health Psychology, 29, 227-235. doi:10.1037/a0018036
[40] Schumann, S. (2009). Eysenk and Schumann had a correspondence in the mid 80’s about problems in factor analysis. The cited comment was made by Eysenck in one of the letters, Personal Communication.
[41] Suzuki, D. T., Fromm, E., et al. (1974). Zen-Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Norfolk, Bertrams Print on Demand. [Zen-Buddhismus und Psychoanalyse (1972). Frankfurt, Suhrkamp.]
[42] Walach, H. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1543- 1555. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.025
[43] Van Houdenhove, B., & Luyten, P. (2011). Listen to the story: chronic fatigue syndrome patients do not live in a vacuum. Psychother Psychosom, 80, 113-115. doi:10.1159/000320974
[44] Worthington Jr., E. L., J. N. Hook, et al. (2011). Religion and spirituality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 204-214. doi:10.1002/jclp.20760

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.