Effect of Shade on Seed Protein, Oil, Fatty Acids, and Minerals in Soybean lines Varying in Seed Germinability in the Early Soybean Production System

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DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.31008   PDF   HTML     6,405 Downloads   11,289 Views   Citations

Abstract

The cause of poor seed quality (germination) of soybean produced in the Early Soybean Production System in the midsouth U.S.A. is still not completely understood. Temperature, solar radiation, and soybean genotype may all be important factors involved. The objective of this research was to evaluate seed composition, mineral level, and nitrogen assimilation in high and low germinability soybean plant introductions in a full-sunlight (unshaded) and a low-light intensity (shaded) environments. Shade netting was employed in field plots that reduced light intensity by about 50% and air temperature by about 10?F/6?C (10%). A two-year field experiment was conducted on soybean accessions with high germinability (PI 587982A and PI 603723), low germinability (PI 80480 and PI 84976-1), and on soybean cultivars (DSR-3100 RR STS and Pella 86). Results showed that shade resulted in higher total oil, linoleic and linolenic acids, and lower protein and oleic acid. Shade also resulted in lower nitrogen assimilation, leaf chlorophyll concentration, but unshade resulted in higher total seed boron, iron, and nitrogen concentrations. Seed structural boron was positively correlated with germination and protein. Structural boron percentage was consistently higher under shade than under unshade in PI 80480, PI 84976-1, DSR-3100 RR STS, and Pella 86, but consistently higher under unshade than under shade in higher germinability lines PI 587982A and PI 603723, suggesting that different distribution mechanisms of structural boron exist between genotypes. The positive correlation between germination and structural B and between protein and structural B signify a possible role of B in seed quality traits. Our research demonstrated that light intensity, combined with temperature, can alter seed constituents. Higher germinability lines had higher germination rates and lower percentages of hardseededness, desirable traits for soybean seed.

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N. Bellaloui, J. Smith, A. Gillen, D. Fisher and A. Mengistu, "Effect of Shade on Seed Protein, Oil, Fatty Acids, and Minerals in Soybean lines Varying in Seed Germinability in the Early Soybean Production System," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 84-95. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.31008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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