An Astrophysical Peek into Einstein’s Static Universe: No Dark Energy ()

It is shown that in order that the fluid pressure and acceleration are uniform and finite in Einstein’s Static Universe (ESU), , the cosmological constant, is zero. being a fundamental constant, should be same everywhere including the Friedman model. Independent proofs show that it must be so. Accordingly, the supposed acceleration of the universe and the attendant concept of “Dark Energy”(DE) could be an illusion; an artifact of explaining cosmological observations in terms of an oversimplified model which is fundamentally inappropriate. Indeed observations show that the actual universe is lumpy and inhomogeneous at the largest scales. Further in order that there is no preferred centre, such inhomogeneity might be expressed in terms of infinite hierarchial fractals. Also, the recent finding that the Friedman model intrinsically corresponds to zero pressure (and hence zero temperature) in accordance with the fact that an ideal Hubble flow implies no collision, no randomness (Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc., 333,351, 2011) too shows that the Friedman model cannot represent the real universe having pressure, temperature and radiation. Dark Energy might also be an artifact of the neglect of dust absorption of distant Type 1a supernovae coupled with likely evolution of supernovae luminosities or imprecise calibration of cosmic distance ladders or other systemetic errors (White, Rep. Prog. Phys., 70, 883, 2007). In reality, observations may not rule out an inhomogeneous static universe (Ellis, Gen. Rel. Grav. 9, 87, 1978).

Keywords

General Relativity, Cosmological Constant, Cosmology, Dark Energy, Fractal Cosmology, Static Universe, Big Bang Theory

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A. Mitra, "An Astrophysical Peek into Einstein’s Static Universe: No Dark Energy," *International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 183-199. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2011.14024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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