Advances in MIMO Techniques for Mobile Communications—A Survey
Farhan Khalid, Joachim Speidel
DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.33031   PDF   HTML     38,788 Downloads   54,271 Views   Citations


This paper provides a comprehensive overview of critical developments in the field of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. The state of the art in single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) communications is presented, highlighting the key aspects of these technologies. Both open-loop and closed-loop SU-MIMO systems are discussed in this paper with particular emphasis on the data rate maximization aspect of MIMO. A detailed review of various MU-MIMO uplink and downlink techniques then follows, clarifying the underlying concepts and emphasizing the importance of MU-MIMO in cellular communication systems. This paper also touches upon the topic of MU-MIMO capacity as well as the promising convex optimization approaches to MIMO system design.

Share and Cite:

F. Khalid and J. Speidel, "Advances in MIMO Techniques for Mobile Communications—A Survey," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2010, pp. 213-252. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.33031.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D.-S. Shiu, P. J. Smith, and A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: An overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 281–302, April 2003.
[2] Y. Jiang, J. Li, and W. W. Hager, “Joint transceiver design for MIMO communications using geometric mean decomposition,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 53, No. 10, pp. 3791–3803, October 2005.
[3] M. Jiang and L. Hanzo, “Multiuser MIMO-OFDM for next-generation wireless systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 7, pp. 1430–1469, July 2007.
[4] K. W. Park, E. S. Choi, K. H. Chang, and Y. S. Cho, “An MIMO-OFDM technique for high-speed mobile channels,” in Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 980–983, April 2003.
[5] M. S. Gast, “802.11 wireless networks: The definitive guide,” 2nd edition, O’Reilly, April 2005.
[6] Wi-Fi Alliance, “WiFi CERTIFIED? 802.11n draft 2.0: Longer-range, faster-throughput,multimedia grade WiFi? networks,” 2007. draft2_technical.php.
[7] FierceBroadbandWireless, “IEEE approves EWC 802.11n as first draft,” 24 January 2006. http://www. first-draft/2006-01-25.
[8] Y. Sun, M. Karkooti, and J. Cavallaro, “High throughput, parallel, scalable LDPC encoder/decoder architecture for OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Circuits and Systems, pp. 225–228, October 2006.
[9] H. N. Niu and C. Ngo, “Diversity and multiplexing switching in 802.11n MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of 40th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ACSSC ’06), pp. 1644–1648, 29 October–1 November 2006.
[10] P. Kim and K. M. Chugg, “Capacity for suboptimal receivers for coded multiple-input multiple-output systems,” Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 3306–3314, September 2007.
[11] S. Abraham, A. Meylan, S. Nanda, “802.11n MAC design and system performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 2957–2961, 16–20 May 2005.
[12] Cisco Aironet 1250 Series Access Point Q&A. http://www.
[13] S. Kim, S.-J. Lee, and S. Choi, “The impact of IEEE 802.11 MAC strategies on multi-hop wireless mesh networks,” Wireless Mesh Networks, in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE Workshop on Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh 2006), pp. 38–47, 25–28 September 2006.
[14] IEEE Std 802.16e?-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16?- 2004/Cor 1-2005 (Amendment and Corrigendum to IEEE Std 802.16-2004), “IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systems amendment 2: Physical and medium access control layers for combined fixed and mobile operation in licensed bands and Corrigendum 1,” 28 February 2006.
[15] IEEE Std 802.16?-2004, “IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems,” 1 October 2004.
[16] J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, and R. Muhamed, “Fundamentals of WiMAX: Understanding broad-band wireless networking,” Prentice Hall, 2007.
[17] I. Kambourov, “MIMO aspects in 802.16e WiMAX OFDMA,” WiMAX Tutorial, Siemens PSE MCS RA 2, 22 November 2006.
[18] Nokia Siemens Networks, “Advanced antenna systems for WiMAX.”
[19] S. Nanda, R. Walton, J. Ketchum, M. Wallace, and S. Howard, “A high-performance MIMO OFDM wireless LAN,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 101–109, February 2005.
[20] Agilent Technologies, “Mobile WiMAX 802.16 Wave 2 Features.” jspx?action=download&cc=US&lc=eng&ckey=1213544&nid=-536902344.536910932.00&id=1213544.
[21] IEEE C802.16m-07/069, “Draft IEEE 802.16m evaluation methodology document,” IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group, 2007.
[22] WiMAX Forum?, “Deployment of Mobile WiMAX? Networks by Operators with Existing 2G & 3G Networks,” 2008. downloads/deployment_of_mobile_wimax. pdf.
[23] C. Ribeiro, “Bringing wireless access to the automobile: A comparison of Wi-Fi, WiMAX, MBWA, and 3G,” 21st Computer Science Seminar, 2005.
[24] B. M. Bakmaz, Z. S. Bojkovi?, D. A. Milovanovi?, and M. R. Bakmaz, “Mobile broadband networking based on IEEE 802.20 standard,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Services (TELSIKS 2007), pp. 243–246, 26–28 September 2007.
[25] IEEE Std 802.20?-2008, “IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks Part 20: Air interface for mobile broadband wireless access systems supporting vehicular mobility–physical and media access control layer specification,” 29 August 2008.
[26] 3GPP TS 36.201 V8.1.0 (2007-11), “LTE physical layer – general description (Release 8),” 3GPP TSG RAN,2007.
[27] J. Zyren, “Overview of the 3GPP long term evolution physical layer,” White Paper, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007.
[28] 3GPP TR 25.913 V7.3.0 (2006-03), “Requirements for evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) (Release 7),” 3GPP TSG RAN, 2006.
[29] 3GPP TS 36.300 V8.4.0 (2008-03), “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) and evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2 (Release 8),” 3GPP TSG RAN, 2008.
[30] 3GPP TS 36.211 V8.1.0 (2007-11), “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation (Release 8),” 3GPP TSG RAN, 2007.
[31] P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, “V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,” in Proceedings of 1998 URSI International Symposium Signals, Systems, and Electronics, pp. 295–300, 29 September–2 October 1998.
[32] S. T. Chung, A. Lozano, and H. C. Huang, “Approaching eigenmode BLAST channel capacity using V-BLAST with rate and power feedback,” in Proceedings of IEEE VTC 2001 Fall, Vol. 2, pp. 915–919, 7–11 October 2001.
[33] Q. P. Cai, A. Wilzeck, C. Schindler, S. Paul, and T. Kaiser, “An exemplary comparison of per antenna rate control based MIMO-HSDPA receivers,” in Proceedings of 13th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2005), 4–8 September, 2005.
[34] R. Gowrishankar, M. F. Demirkol, and Z. Q. Yun, “Adaptive modulation for MIMO systems and throughput evaluation with realistic channel model,” in Proceedings of 2005 International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, pp. 851–856, 13–16 June 2005.
[35] M. I. Rahman, S. S. Das, E. de Carvalho, and R. Prasad, “Spatial multiplexing in OFDM systems with cyclic delay diversity,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1491–1495, 22–25 April 2007.
[36] H. Busche, A. Vanaev, and H. Rohling, “SVD based MIMO precoding and equalization schemes for realistic channel estimation procedures,” Frequenz Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications, Vol. 61, No. 7–8, pp. 146–151, July–August 2007.
[37] Y. Jiang and J. Li, “Uniform channel decomposition for MIMO communications,” in Proceedings of 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, System, and Computers, 7–10 November 2004.
[38] S. Haykin, M. Sellathurai, Y. de Jong, and T. Willink, “Turbo-MIMO for wireless communications,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 48–53, October 2004.
[39] M. Sellathurai and S. Haykin, “Turbo-BLAST for wireless communications: Theory and experiments,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 2538–2546, October 2002.
[40] D. J. Love, R. W. Heath Jr., W. Santipach, and M. L. Honig, “What is the value of limited feedback for MIMO channels,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 54–59, October 2004.
[41] Y. Yuda, K. Hiramatsu, M. Hoshino, and K. Homma, “A study on link adaptation scheme with multiple code words for spectral efficiency improvement on OFDM- MIMO systems,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E90A, No. 11, pp. 2413–2422, November 2007.
[42] Z. G. Zhou, H. Y. Yi, H. Y. Guo, and J. T. Zhou, “A partial feedback scheme for MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of WiCom 2007, pp. 361–364, 21–25 September 2007.
[43] A. Heidari, F. Lahouti, and A. K. Khandani, “Enhancing closed-loop wireless systems through efficient feedback reconstruction,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 2941–2953, September 2007.
[44] H. R. Bahrami and T. Le-Ngoc, “MIMO precoding structures for frequency-flat and frequency-selective fading channels,” in Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE ’06), pp. 193–197, 10–11 October 2006.
[45] M. Tsutsui and H. Seki, “Throughput performance of downlink MIMO transmission with multi-beam selection using a novel codebook,” in Proceedings of IEEE VTC 2007-Spring, pp. 476–480, 22–25 April 2007.
[46] K. W. Park and Y. S Cho, “An MIMO-OFDM technique for high-speed mobile channels,” IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 604–606, July 2005.
[47] A. A. Hutter, S. Mekrazi, B. N. Getu, and F. Platbrood, “Alamouti-based space-frequency coding for OFDM,” Wireless Personal Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1–2, pp. 173–185, October 2005.
[48] Q. H. Spencer, C. B. Peel, A. L. Swindlehurst, and M. Haardt, “An introduction to the multi-user MIMO downlink,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 60–67, October 2004.
[49] A. Paulraj, R. Nabar, and D. Gore, “Introduction to space-time wireless communications,” Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
[50] S. Sfar, R. D. Murch, and K. B. Letaief, “Layered space-time multiuser detection over wireless uplink systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 2, No. 4, July 2003.
[51] V. Stankovic and M. Haardt, “Improved diversity on the uplink of multi-user MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Wireless Technology ’05, pp. 113–116, 3–4 October 2005.
[52] I. Santamaria, V. Elvira, J. Via, D. Ramirez, J. Perez, J. Ibanez, R. Eickoff, and F. Ellinger, “Optimal MIMO transmission schemes with adaptive antenna combining in the RF path,” in Proceedings of 16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2008), 25–29 August 2008.
[53] N. Veselinovic, T. Matsumoto, and M. Juntti, “Iterative MIMO turbo multiuser detection and equalization for STTrC-coded systems with unknown interference,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2004, No. 2, pp. 309–321, 2004.
[54] Q. Spencer and M. Haardt, “Capacity and downlink transmission algorithms for a multi-user MIMO channel,” in Proceedings of 36th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 1384–1388, November 2002.
[55] B. Bandemer, M. Haardt, and S. Visuri, “Linear MMSE multi-user MIMO downlink precoding for users with multiple antennas,” in Proceedings of IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC’06), pp. 1–5, 11–14 September 2006.
[56] Q. H. Spencer, A. L. Swindlehurst, and M. Haardt, “Zero-forcing methods for downlink spatial multiplexing in multiuser MIMO channels,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 461–471, February 2004.
[57] V. Stankovic and M. Haardt, “Multi-user MIMO down- link precoding for users with multiple antennas,” in Proceedings of 12th Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF), Toronto, ON, Canada, November 2004.
[58] M. Costa, “Writing on dirty paper,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 29, pp. 439–441, May 1983.
[59] V. Stankovic, M. Haardt, and G. D. Galdo, “Efficient multi-user MIMO downlink precoding and scheduling,” in Proceedings of 1st IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing, pp. 237–240, 13–15 December 2005.
[60] V. Stankovic and M. Haardt, “Successive optimization Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (SO THP) for multi- user MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Philadelphia, PA, USA, March 2005.
[61] M. Joham, J. Brehmer, and W. Utschick, “MMSE approaches to multiuser spatio-temporal Tomlinson-Harashima precoding,” in Proceedings of 5th International ITG Conference on Source and Channel Coding (ITG SCC’04), pp. 387–394, January 2004.
[62] M. Lee and S. K. Oh, “A per-user successive MMSE precoding technique in multiuser MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE VTC 2007-Spring, pp. 2374–2378, 22–25 April 2007.
[63] M. Schubert, S. Shi, E. A. Jorswieck, and H. Boche, “Downlink sum-MSE transceiver optimization for linear multi-user MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of 39th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 1424–1428, October 2005.
[64] A. Mezghani, M. Joham, R. Hunger, and W. Utschick, “Transceiver design for multi-user MIMO systems,” in Proceedings of ITG/IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA 2006), March 2006.
[65] D. Hammarwall, M. Bengtsson, and B. Ottersten, “Acquiring partial CSI for spatially selective transmission by instantaneous channel norm feedback,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 56, No. 3, March 2008.
[66] C.-J. Chen and L.-C. Wang, “Enhancing coverage and capacity for multiuser MIMO systems by utilizing scheduling,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2006.
[67] W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “Sum capacity of Gaussian vector broadcast channels,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 50, No. 9, September 2004.
[68] H. Weingarten, Y. Steinberg, and S. Shamai, “The capacity region of the Gaussian MIMO broadcast channel,” in Proceedings of ISIT 2004, 27 June–2 July 2004.
[69] A. Goldsmith, S. A. Jafar, N. Jindal, and S. Vishwanath, “Capacity limits of MIMO channels,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 684–702, June 2003.
[70] D. P. Palomar, A. Pascual-Iserte, J. M. Cioffi, and M. A. Lagunas, “Convex optimization theory applied to joint transmitter-receiver design in MIMO channels,” Space- Time Processing for MIMO Communications, edited by A. B. Gershman and N. D. Sidiropoulos, Chichester, England, Wiley, 2005.
[71] D. P. Palomar, J. M. Cioffi, and M. A. Lagunas, “Joint tx-rx beamforming design for multicarrier MIMO channels: A unified framework for convex optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 9, September 2003.
[72] A. A. D’Amico, “Tomlinson-Harashima precoding in MIMO systems: A unified approach to transceiver optimization based on multiplicative Schur-convexity,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 56, No. 8, August 2008.
[73] B. M. Hochwald and S. ten Brink, “Achieving near-capacity on a multiple-antenna channel,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 389–399, March 2003.
[74] M. Sellathurai and G. Foschini, “A stratified diagonal layered space-time architecture: Information theoretic and signal processing aspects,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 11, pp. 2943–2954, November 2003.
[75] S. Lambotharan and C. Toker, “Closed-loop space time block coding techniques for OFDM broadband wireless access systems,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 765–769, August 2005.
[76] Y. Zhou, T.-S. Ng, J. Wang, K. Higuchi, and M. Sawahashi, “OFCDM: A promising broadband wireless access technique,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 2008.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.