Age and Calcium Sources in Laying Hen Feed Affect Calcium Digestibility

Abstract

The apparent calcium (Ca) digestibility coefficient (ADC) and true digestibility coefficient (TDC) of different inorganic calcium sources were determined in laying hens of different ages. Three Ca digestibility tests were carried out, each assessing 240 Lohmann Brown lineage laying hens distributed in a completely randomized design. Nine dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial design consisting of three ages (40, 50 and 70 weeks) × three Ca (dicalcium phosphate (DCP) sources, fine (FL) and coarse (CL)) limestone, comprising eight replicates per treatment of six birds per experimental unit. Regarding the DCP, the ADC was higher (P < 0.05) in 40-week-old birds. The DCP ADC for 40-, 50- and 70-week-old birds was 0.889, 0.613 and 0.712, respectively. No effect (P > 0.05) of age on the ADC was noted for either FL or CL. Comparing Ca sources, DCP exhibited a higher (P < 0.05) ADC (0.889), followed by FL (0.699) and CL (0.515), in 40-week-old birds. DCP (0.712) and FL (0.652) presented (P < 0.05) higher ADC compared to CL (0.482), in 70-week-old birds. No effect of Ca sources at 50 weeks on the ADC was observed (P > 0.05). Endogenous loss values of 790, 860 and 930 mg·kg-1 of consumed dry matter were observed at 40, 50 and 70 weeks, respectively. For the TDC, no interaction (P > 0.05) was observed between Ca sources and bird age. The highest TDC value (P > 0.05) was found in birds fed DCP (0.786) followed by FL (0.637) and CL (0.534). In addition, birds at 40 weeks of age (0.714) exhibited higher TDC values (P < 0.05) compared to animals at 50 weeks of age (0.608). The findings reported herein demonstrate that the true digestibility is greater in the youngest birds and that consumed the DCP and the FL in relation to the birds that consumed the CL.

Share and Cite:

Diana, T. , Calderano, A. , Tavernari, F. , Rostagno, H. , Teixeira, A. and Albino, L. (2021) Age and Calcium Sources in Laying Hen Feed Affect Calcium Digestibility. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 11, 501-513. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2021.113034.

1. Introduction

The main inorganic calcium (Ca) sources used in bird diets are calcitic limestone and calcium phosphates, which exhibit variable Ca bioavailability [1]. However, the determination of Ca digestibility in these sources has received little attention, mainly due to their low cost, abundant availability and surplus global reserves [2] [3].

Recently, the initiative to determine digestible phosphorus (P) in feed has led to further attention concerning Ca digestibility [3]. In addition, young birds tend to absorb Ca more efficiently than older birds [4]. According to Albino et al. [5], older laying hens exhibited a 20% reduction in intestinal Ca absorption, increasing bone Ca mobilization and reducing carbonic anhydrase activity, leading to lower eggshell calcification.

Previous studies on broilers reported low true Ca digestibility coefficients for fine limestone [6] [7]. There was evidence that the Ca digestibility was due to the physical and solubility characteristics of the applied Ca sources [8]. Zhang and Coon [9] reported that laying hens displayed the ability to maintain larger food particles in their gizzards for longer periods of time, thus increasing solubility and in vivo use. Limestone particle size influences in vitro solubility [9] [10] [11] and a negative correlation between in vitro and in vivo Ca solubility in laying hens has been noted [9] [12].

Given the above, the hypothesis of this study was that laying hen age and inorganic Ca source may influence Ca digestibility. Thus, the aim herein was to determine the apparent and true Ca digestibility coefficients of different inorganic Ca sources for laying hens of different ages.

2. Materials and Methods

This research was authorized by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (process number 06/2020) and was carried out per the ethical principles from the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation.

2.1. Experimental Design and Diets

Three Ca digestibility tests were carried out for laying hens of different ages (40, 50 and 70 weeks). A total of 240 Lohmann Brown lineage laying hens were used in each trial, distributed in a completely randomized design, comprising eight replicates per treatment of six birds per experimental unit. A 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three ages × three Ca sources) was adopted. The birds were distributed according to their body weight (1.938 ± 190 g) and egg production. The interval of each test, the birds were fed with ration according to their requirement, according to the one proposed by Rostagno et al. [13]. The tested Ca sources were dicalcium phosphate and fine and coarse calcitic limestone.

A basal diet containing 1.10 g·Kg−1 total Ca and 0.89 g·Kg−1 available P was formulated. The tested Ca sources replaced basal diet starch in varying amounts (DCP − basal diet + dicalcium phosphate; FL: basal diet + fine-grained calcitic limestone; CL: basal diet + coarse-grained limestone) (Table 1). A diet free of available Ca and P was also formulated to determine endogenous Ca losses (Table 2).

Table 1. Ingredient composition and analysis (g·kg−1) of experimental diets.

1Containing per kg: Vit. A—15,000,000 International Unite (IU); Vit. D3—1,500,000 IU; Vit E—15,000 IU; Vit B1—2.0 g; Vit B2—4.0 g; Vit B6—3.0 g; Vit B12—0.015 g; Nicotinic acid—25.0 g; B.C. Pantothenic—10.0 g; Vit. K3—3.0 g; B.C. folic-1.0 g; Zinc bacitracin—10.0 g; Selenium—0.25 g and antioxidant—10.0 g. 2Containing per kg: Manganese—80 g; Iron—80 g; Zinc—50 g; Copper—10 g and Cobalt—2 g; Iodine-1 g. 3Butyl Hydroxy Toluene. MJ = Mega Joule.

Table 2. Composition and analysis of ingredients (g·kg−1) of the Ca and P free feed.

1Containing per kg: Vit. A—15,000,000 IU; Vit. D3—1,500,000 IU; Vit E—15,000 IU; Vit B1—2.0 g; Vit B2—4.0 g; Vit B6—3.0 g; Vit B12—0.015 g; Nicotinic acid—25.0 g; B.C. Pantothenic—10.0 g; Vit. K3—3.0 g; B.C. folic—1.0 g; Zinc bacitracin—10.0 g; Selenium—0.25 g and antioxidant—10.0 g. 2Containing per kg: Manganese—80 g; Iron—80 g; Zinc—50 g; Copper—10 g and Cobalt—2 g; Iodine—1 g. 3Butyl Hydroxy Toluene. MJ = Mega Joule.

2.2. Birds

The chicks used were acquired from a 1-day-old local hatchery and were fixed on the floor in an open shed and, at the 17th week of age, were transferred to a laying shed (60 × 9 m) covered with clay tiles, housed in cages [25 cm wide, 35 cm long and 40 cm high; two birds per cage (three cages combined with the experimental unit)].

During the rearing, rearing and production phases up to 40 weeks of age, the birds were managed as described in the lineage manuals and fed with rations formulated according to the recommendations of Rostagno et al. [13]

In the 40th week, the birds were fed with the experimental rations for nine days, being five days for adaptation to the cage and the experimental diet and four days for total excrement collection.

At each end of the experimental phase (nine days), the birds received the feed formulated according to the recommendations of Rostagno et al. [13], until they are submitted to a new digestibility test.

Ambient temperature (˚C) was monitored through three maximum and minimum thermometers located throughout the shed. The maximum and minimum mean shed temperatures varied between 29.08˚C and 18.33˚C, respectively. A 16 h light/8h dark photoperiod was applied. Food and water were provided ad libitum.

2.3. Sample Collection and Processing

Hen excreta were collected and stored in plastic bags in a freezer (−18˚C) until the end of the collection period of each test. The hens received a diet free of calcium and phosphorus to assess endogenous losses. At the end of the collection period, the excreta were thawed, weighed, homogenized, dried in a ventilated oven at 55˚C for 72 h and ground and stored in plastic containers for subsequent analyses.

The following data was collected: feed intake (g) (FI), dry matter intake (g) (DMI), Ca intake (g) (CaI), basal feed diet and Ca sources (g), Ca supply by the basal diet and food (g·Kg−1), Ca content in the diets and excreta (g·Kg−1), Ca excretion (g) and Ca excreted by birds receiving a diet with low Ca content (g·Kg−1). These data were used to obtain the apparent and true Ca digestibility coefficients values and apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient, using the equations adapted by Rostagno and Featherston [14].

2.4. Calculations

Apparent Ca Digestibility Coefficient (ADC).

ADC = Ingested Ca ( g ) Excreted Ca ( g ) Ingested Ca ( g )

True Ca Digestibility Coefficient (TDC).

TDC = [ Ingested Ca ( g ) ( Excreted Ca ( g ) Endogenous Ca ) ] Ingested Ca ( g )

Apparent Dry Matter Digestibility Coefficient (ADMDC).

ADMDC = Ingested dry matter ( g ) Excreted dry matter ( g ) Ingested dry matter ( g )

2.5. Chemical Analyses

The mean geometric diameter (MGD) determinations of the feed were performed at the Embrapa—CNPSA Animal Nutrition laboratory, in Concordia, SC, using the Softgran Granucalc® program [15]. This is an alternative method that approximates the applied screen meshes (Table 3).

Ca content was determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry [16]. In vitro solubility was determined according to Cheng and Coon [10], through the percentage of weight loss, where 100 mL of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid was added.

2.6. Statistical Analyses

The analysis of variance was performed according to the statistical model to a completely randomized design:

Y i j = μ + t i + β j + ( t β ) i j + ε i j ,

in which Yij = observed value for treatment i, in repetition j, µ = average of the experiment, ti = effect of level i of factor t, βj = effect of level j of factor β, ()ij = effect of the interaction between ti and βj, and εij = random error associated to each observation.

The data were submitted to an ANOVA test, and the means were compared by the Tukey test at a 5% probability using the statistical package R Core Team [17].

3. Results

An interaction (P < 0.05) was observed between Ca sources and bird age (weeks), for FI and DMI (Table 4). The highest FI and DMI were found in 40- and 50-week-old birds relative to 70-week-old birds when consuming CL and in 40- and 70-week-old birds when consuming FL relative to DCP and CL (P < 0.05).

Like FI and DMI, CaI also showed an interaction (P < 0.05) between Ca sources and bird age. Birds at 40 and 50 weeks of age showed higher CaI (P < 0.05) when consuming CL compared to birds at 70 weeks of age. The highest CaI (P < 0.05) was found in the 40- and 70-week-old birds that consumed FL followed by CL and DCP, and at 50 weeks of age (P < 0.05) that consumed FL and CL followed by DCP.

For ADMDC, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of Ca sources, bird ages and their interaction.

Concerning the ADC, an interaction (P < 0.05) between Ca sources and bird age was detected (Table 5). Regarding DCP, the ADC was higher (P < 0.05) in

Table 3. Mean geometric diameter (MGD), geometric standard deviation (GSD), solubility and Ca and P concentrations of the test foods analyzed in the laying bird experiments.

Table 4. Means for feed intake (FI), dry matter intake (DMI), Ca intake (CaI) and apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient (ADMDC) of Ca sources at different ages for laying birds1.

Means followed by different lowercase letters on the line indicate a statistically significant difference by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Means followed by different capital letters in the column indicate a statistically significant difference by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). 1Each value represents the mean of eight replicates (six birds per replicate). SEM = standard error mean.

Table 5. Means for Ca, Apparent (ADC) and True (TDC) Digestibility Coefficients of Ca sources, at different ages, for laying birds1.

Means followed by different lowercase letters on the line indicate a statistically significant difference by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Means followed by different capital letters in the column indicate a statistically significant difference by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). 1Each value represents the mean of eight replicates (six birds per replicate). SEM = standard error mean.

40-week-old birds, while no effect of age (P > 0.05) on ADC was observed for FL and CL (P > 0.05).

Comparing Ca sources, DCP exhibited a higher ADC (P < 0.05), followed by FL and CL in 40-week-old birds. DCP and FL exhibited a higher ADC (P < 0.05) compared to CL in 70-week-old birds, while no effect (P > 0.05) of Ca sources on ADC was observed at 50 weeks.

Endogenous losses of 790, 860 and 930 mg·kg−1 of consumed dry matter were obtained at 40, 50 and 70 weeks of age, respectively.

For TDC, no interaction (P > 0.05) was observed between Ca sources and bird age. The highest TDC (P > 0.05) was observed in birds fed DCP, followed by FL and CL. In addition, 40-week-old birds exhibited a higher TDC value (P < 0.05), compared to 50-week-old birds.

4. Discussion

The higher in vitro solubility of fine-grained limestone compared to coarse particles observed in the present study has also been observed in previous assessments [6] [7] [10] [18]. The larger surface area of the FL particle counts may increase the hydrochloric acid reaction and consequently, in vitro solubility [19].

The calculated Ca value in the limestones specified by Rostagno et al. [13] (377.00 g·Kg−1) and by the NRC [20] (380.00 g·Kg−1) were close to those analyzed in the thin (365.50 g·Kg−1) and coarse (363.50 g·Kg−1) limestones assessed in the present study. The present findings are consistent with previously published data, in which limestone Ca concentrations range between 360.00 and 415.00 g·Kg−1 [21] [22] [23]. Anwar et al. [7] state that limestone cannot exceed 400.00 g·Kg−1 of Ca based on the atomic and molecular weights of Ca carbonate, and that the aforementioned values can be attributed to analytical errors, contamination with Ca hydroxide or both.

The higher values found for FI and DMI, in the present study, with the 40 and 50-week-old birds, compared to older birds (70 weeks old), when treated with CL, may be attributed to the larger granulometry of limestone, because according to Portella et al. [24] and Nir et al. [25], older chickens tend to select and ingest larger feed particles. This greater intake of these feed particles may interfere with the dwell time of the feed in the gizzard and the rate of intestinal transit [1], leading to greater satiety of the animal and decreased FI. This finding corroborates that found by Geraldo et al. [26], when evaluating two limestone granulometry (0.135 mm versus DGM = 0.899 mm) during 8 to 12 weeks of age of Lohmann—LSL birds, observed lower IF of older birds that consumed feed with limestone with higher granulometry.

Given the results in this study, within each age (40 and 70 weeks of chicken age), birds treated with FL compared to CL and DCP, showed higher FI and DMI. These results reinforce that due to the greater consumption of coarser particles and longer time the feed remains in the gizzard, the hens are satiated longer, which reduces FI and consequent reduction in DMI. However, the DCP, by presenting the MGD (560.00 µm) close to the MGD of FL (558.00 µm), should not be attributed to the particle size of the DCP, but in relation to its Ca digestibility coefficient, which may have favored its lower FI and DMI.

The results of this study indicate that laying hens were more efficient in digesting Ca from DCP and FL, which contributed, in part, to the higher TDC values observed for DCP and FL compared to CL. This can be explained by the particle size of these ingredients (Table 3), as DCP and FL exhibit lower MGD, which, in turn, affects intestinal functions and digestive processes [27] [28]. Finer particle size increases the contact surface area of the particles per unit volume, which can improve digestion efficiency and nutrient absorption [9] [30]. In addition, Ca levels in the DCP diet (6.00 g·Kg−1) were lower than in the limestone diet (24.00 g·Kg−1), where it can be demonstrated by CaI. Thus, higher Ca levels may have intensified the lower Ca absorption effect observed in the CL diet [31].

Birds consuming diets with high levels of Ca tend to have a low absorption rate for this mineral. This low absorption rate is associated with saturation of the Ca transport protein [32]. In addition, due to the increase in pH promoted by high Ca levels in the gut, the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate is reduced due to the neutralization in the gut promoted by the increase in pH [33]. Furthermore, in older birds, the capacity to absorb Ca is lower compared to younger birds [34].

Similar results were reported by Mayer [35], who observed a 10% decrease in the apparent Ca digestibility rate (0.376 versus 0.275) with increased limestone particles from 126 to 933 micrometers. However, intact particles (coarse limestone) were notoriously excreted, explaining the low Ca CL digestibility.

The hens were expected to exhibit greater CL digestion compared to FL. Anwar et al. [2] when comparing the effect of calcium source and particle size (fine (<0.5 mm) and coarse (1 - 2 mm)) on the apparent ileal Ca digestibility coefficient for broilers reported higher coefficients for birds that consumed the larger particles, 0.430, versus 0.710 that consumed fine particles. It is possible that the inclusion of coarser particle size particles with low in vitro solubility increased in vivo solubility and caused improvements in nutrient retention and absorption in laying hen [9] [36]. In addition, diets with larger particles positively influence the development and size of poultry gizzards [37] [38], as more rustic diets stimulate intestinal motility [39], due to the stimulus of cholecystokinin release [40]. This, in turn, acts on the release of endogenous enzymes and gastro-duodenal reflux [41] [42], which favors a decrease in the rate of digestion passage [25], and an increase in nutrient digestibility [43], differing from the results of the present study.

The TDC observed in this study was higher in 40-week-old birds compared to 50-week-old birds. A similar result was reported by Sordi et al. [44] when evaluating Ca digestibility for laying hens, who also noted a decrease in the true Ca digestibility coefficient of different DCP and limestone granulometries with increasing bird age. These results, in addition to being influenced by apparent digestibility, may also be due to the average endogenous Ca losses of the hens. Older birds exhibited higher endogenous losses, which may have influenced the reduction of TDC since, in the present study, endogenous loss values of 790, 860 and 930 mg·Kg−1 of consumed dry matter were detected at 40, 50 and 70 weeks of age, respectively. David et al. [3], observed a higher coefficient of true ileal digestibility for limestone (0.510) in broilers compared to DCP (0.320). These results differ from those reported herein, where DCP (0.786) presented a higher coefficient compared to FL (0.637) and CL (0.534). Due to the discrepancies found in the present study in relation to other published assessments, further studies related to age and Ca source effects on Ca digestibility in laying hens are suggested.

5. Conclusion

It can be concluded that currently researches still disagree regarding the ideal granulometry of calcium sources associated to their digestibility, mainly related to limestone. However, in the current study, although the true digestibility was higher in younger birds when treated with DCP and FL in relation to CL, some points still need to be elucidated, such as the proof that smaller limestone particles are more efficient in calcium digestibility, especially for brown laying hens.

Acknowledgements

To the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for financial support.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

[1] Muniz, E.B., de Arruda, A.M.V., Fassani, E.J., Teixeira, A.S. and Pereira, E.S. (2007) Avaliação de fontes de cálcio para frangos de corte. Revista caatinga, 20, 5-14.
https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2371/237117747002.pdf
[2] Anwar, M.N., Ravindran, V., Morel, P.C., Ravindran, G. and Cowieson, A.J. (2016) Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Calcium in Limestone for Broiler Chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 213, 142-147.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.01.014
[3] David, L.S., Abdollahi, M.R., Ravindran, G., Walk, C.L. and Ravindran, V. (2019) Studies on the Measurement of Ileal Calcium Digestibility of Calcium Sources in Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science, 98, 5582-5589.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez314
[4] Li, W., Angel, R., Kim, S.W., Jiménez-Moreno, E., Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M. and Plumstead, P.W. (2018) Impacts of Age and Calcium on Phytase Efficacy in Broiler Chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 238, 9-17.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.01.021
[5] Albino, L.F.T., Carvalho, B.D., Maia, R.C. and Barros, V.R.S.M. (2014) Galinhas poedeiras: Criação e alimentação. Aprenda Fácil, Viçosa.
[6] Anwar, M.N., Ravindran, V., Morel, P.C.H., Ravindran, G. and Cowieson, A.J. (2016b) Effect of Limestone Particle Size and Calcium to Non-Phytate Phosphorus Ratio on True Ileal Calcium Digestibility of Limestone for Broiler Chickens. British Poultry Science, 57, 707-713.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1196341
[7] Anwar, M.N., Ravindran, V., Morel, P.C.H., Ravindran, G. and Cowieson, A.J. (2017) Effect of Calcium Source and Particle Size on the True Ileal Digestibility and Total Tract Retention of Calcium in Broiler Chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 224, 39-45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.12.002
[8] Roland Sr, D.A. (1986) Eggshell Quality IV: Oystershell versus Limestone and the Importance of Particle Size or Solubility of Calcium Source. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 42, 166-171.
https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19860013
[9] Zhang, B. and Coon, C.N. (1997) The Relationship of Calcium Intake, Source, Size, Solubility in Vitro and in Vivo, and Gizzard Limestone Retention in Laying Hens. Poultry Science, 76, 1702-1706.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.12.1702
[10] Cheng, T.K. and Coon, C.N. (1990) Comparison of Various in Vitro Methods for the Determination of Limestone Solubility. Poultry Science, 69, 2204-2208.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0692204
[11] Manangi, M.K. and Coon, C.N. (2007) The Effect of Calcium Carbonate Particle Size and Solubility on the Utilization of Phosphorus from Phytase for Broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6, 85-90.
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2007.85.90
[12] Cheng, T.K. and Coon, C.N. (1990) Effect of Calcium Source, Particle Size, Limestone Solubility in Vitro, and Calcium Intake Level on Layer Bone Status and Performance. Poultry Science, 69, 2214-2219.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0692214
[13] Rostagno, H.S., Albino, L.F.T., Hannas, M.I., Donzele, J.L., Sakomura, N.K., Perazzo, F.G. and Brito, C.O. (2017) Tabelas Brasileiras para Aves e Suínos: Composição de Alimentos e Exigências Nutricionais. Departamento de Zootecnia-UFV, Viçosa, 488 p.
[14] Rostagno, H.S. and Featherston, W.R. (1977) Estudos e métodos para a determinacao de disponibilidade de aminoácidos em pintos [farelo de soja e gergelim]. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia (Brasil), 6, 64-76.
[15] Embrapa suínos e aves. Núcleo de Tecnologia e Informação. Granucalc. Concórdia (2013) Software on line. Aplicativo para o cálculo do Diâmetro Geométrico Médio (DGM) e do Desvio Padrão Geométrico (DPG) de partículas de ingredientes.
http://www.cnpsa.embrapa.br/softgran/softgran.php
[16] Varian, H. (1989) Analytical Methods: Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Varian Limited, Mulgrave.
[17] R Core Team (2019) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
https://www.R-project.org
[18] Zhang, B. and Coon, C.N. (1997) Improved in Vitro Methods for Determining Limestone and Oyster Shell Solubility. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 6, 94-99.
https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/6.1.94
[19] Guinotte, F., Nys, Y. and De Monredon, F. (1991) The Effects of Particle Size and Origin of Calcium Carbonate on Performance and Ossification Characteristics in Broiler Chicks. Poultry Science, 70, 1908-1920.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0701908
[20] NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 19-34.
[21] Reid, B.L. and Weber, C.W. (1976) Calcium Availability and Trace Mineral Composition of Feed Grade Calcium Supplements. Poultry Science, 55, 600-605.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0550600
[22] Wilkinson, S.J., Ruth, B. and Cowieson, A.J. (2013) Mineral Composition of Calcium Sources Used by the Australian Poultry Feed Industry. 24th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium, 24, 45-47.
[23] Browning, L.C. and Cowieson, A.J. (2013) The Concentration of Strontium and Other Minerals in Animal Feed Ingredients. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition, 2, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1017/jan.2013.9
[24] Portella, F.J., Caston, L.J. and Leeson, S. (1988) Apparent Feed Particle Size Preference by Broilers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 68, 923-930.
https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas88-102
[25] Nir, I., Hillel, R., Shefet, G. and Nitsan, Z. (1994) Effect of Grain Particle Size on Performance: 2. Grain Texture Interactions. Poultry Science, 73, 781-791.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0730781
[26] Geraldo, A., Bertechini, A.G., Brito, J.Á.G.D., Kato, R.K. and Fassani, E.J. (2006) Níveis de cálcio e granulometrias do calcário para frangas de reposição no período de 3 a 12 semanas de idade. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 35, 113-118.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000100014
[27] Svihus, B. and Hetland, H. (2001) Ileal Starch Digestibility in Growing Broiler Chickens Fed on a Wheat-Based Diet Is Improved by Mash Feeding, Dilution with Cellulose or Whole Wheat Inclusion. British Poultry Science, 42, 633-637.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120088461
[28] Liu, S.Y., Truong, H.H. and Selle, P.H. (2015) Whole-Grain Feeding for Chicken-Meat Production: Possible Mechanisms Driving Enhanced Energy Utilisation and Feed Conversion. Animal Production Science, 55, 559-572.
https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13417
[29] Behnke, K.C. (2001) Factors Influencing Pellet Quality. Feed Technology, 5, 19-22.
[30] Goodband, R.D., Tokach, M.D. and Nelssen, J.L. (2002) The Effects of Diet Particle Size on Animal Performance. MF-2050 Feed Manufacturing. Kansas State University, Manhattan.
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/grsci2/mf2050.pdf
[31] Pelicia, K., Garcia, E., Móri, C., Faitarone, A.B.G., Silva, A.P., Molino, A.B., Berto, D.A., et al. (2009) Calcium Levels and Limestone Particle Size in the Diet of Commercial Layers at the End of the First Production Cycle. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 11, 87-94.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-635X2009000200003
[32] Maiorka, A. and Macari, M. (2008) Absorção de minerais. In: Macari, M., Furlan, R.L. and Gonzales, E., Eds., Fisiologia aviária: Aplicada a frangos de corte, 2nd Edition, FUNEP/UNESP, Jaboticabal, 167-173.
[33] Aguda, A.Y., Sekoni, A.A. and Omage, J.J. (2015) Requirement of Calcium and Available Phosphorus for Laying Japanese Quail Birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Nigeria. Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences, 4, 31-38.
http://www.JAPSC.com
[34] Costa, C.H.R., Barreto, S.L.D.T., Umigi, R.T., Lima, H.J.D.A., Araujo, M.S.D. and Medina, P. (2010) Balanço de cálcio e fósforo e estudo dos níveis desses minerais em dietas para codornas japonesas (45 a 57 semanas de idade). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39, 1748-1755.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000800017
[35] Mayer, A. (2014) Granulometrias do calcário calcítico e redução do cálcio dietético para frangos de corte. 95f. PhD Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras.
[36] Molnar, A., Maertens, L., Ampe, B., Buyse, J., Zoons, J. and Delezie, E. (2017) Supplementation of Fine and Coarse Limestone in Different Ratios in a Split Feeding System: Effects on Performance, Egg Quality, and Bone Strength in Old Laying Hens. Poultry Science, 96, 1659-1671.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew424
[37] Taylor, R.D. and Jones, G.P.D. (2004) The Incorporation of Whole Grain into Pelleted Broiler Chicken Diets. II. Gastrointestinal and Digesta Characteristics. British Poultry Science, 45, 237-246.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660410001715849
[38] Ege, G., Bozkurt, M., Koçer, B., Tüzün, A.E., Uygun, M. and Alkan, G. (2019) Influence of Feed Particle Size and Feed Form on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Gastrointestinal Tract Traits, Digestive Enzymes, Intestinal Morphology, and Nutrient Digestibility of Laying Hens Reared in Enriched Cages. Poultry Science, 98, 3787-3801.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez082
[39] Ferket, P.R. (2000) Practical Nutritional Perspective on Gut Health and Development. Proceedings 27th Carolina Poultry Nutrition Conference, Raleigh, NC. 2000, 74-86.
[40] Svihus, B., Kløvstad, K.H., Perez, V., Zimonja, O., Sahlström, S., Schüller, R.B. and Prestløkken, E. (2004) Physical and Nutritional Effects of Pelleting of Broiler Chicken Diets Made from Wheat Ground to Different Coarsenesses by the Use of Roller Mill and Hammer Mill. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 117, 281-293.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.08.009
[41] Duke, G.E. (1992) Recent Studies on Regulation of Gastric Motility in Turkeys. Poultry Science, 71, 1-8.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710001
[42] Li, Y. and Owyang, C. (1993) Vagal Afferent Pathway Mediates Physiological Action of Cholecystokinin on Pancreatic Enzyme Secretion. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 92, 418-424.
https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI116583
[43] Carré, B. (2000). Effets de la taille des particules alimentaires sur les processus digestifs chez les oiseaux d’élevage. Productions Animales, 12, 131-136.
https://www6.inrae.fr/productions-animales/2000-Volume-13/Numero-2-2000/Effets-de-la-taille-des-particules-alimentaires
https://doi.org/10.20870/productions-animales.2000.13.2.3774
[44] Sordi, C., Tavernari, F.D.C., Rigon, F., Bender, M., Pedon, V., Griza, A. and Bertechni, A. (2019) Digestibilidade de cálcio e fósforo de fontes inorgânicas para galinhas poedeiras. Embrapa Suínos e Aves-Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE).
https://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/bitstream/doc/1112600/1/final9134.pdf

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.