Excavation of the Internet of Things in Urban Areas Based on an Intelligent Transportation Management System

Abstract

Transportation, as one of the most common aspects people use in their daily lives, has resulted in highly complex traffic in urban areas due to the large number of private vehicles. As some results of the traffic congestion, there is energy consumption, environmental pollution, unplanned accidents, and time is wasted due to congestion and traffic jams. With the aid of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is an excellent computerized technology solution for all field claims, Internet of Things (IoT) technology has recently provided an efficient and effective traffic management system, especially in transportation, due to the combined functions IoT can handle, there are management, monitoring, tracking, identifying, computing, and so on. This article provided a comprehensive overview of a variety of intelligent management systems that have been built using IoT to alleviate traffic congestion.

Share and Cite:

Nambajemariya, F. and Wang, Y. (2021) Excavation of the Internet of Things in Urban Areas Based on an Intelligent Transportation Management System. Advances in Internet of Things, 11, 113-122. doi: 10.4236/ait.2021.113008.

1. Introduction

In recent years, urban transportation has become more complicated and congested as a result of the popularity and use of private transportation by civilians all over the world. This has resulted in severe traffic congestion during peak hours, highlighting the importance of a well-functioning traffic management system in order to prevent collisions, emissions, and time waste [1]. The Internet of Things (IoT) seems to be gaining popularity. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new smarter technology that has contributed to transportation during traffic management through cloud use and proper tracking using various machine learning methods. Traffic management systems that are efficient and reliable help to reduce traffic congestion.

2. Literature Riview

2.1. Intelligent Traffic System

Existing signal system lacks the technology to handle the traffic in efficient way Authors mentioned in [2] Using IoT they have proposed a system that use of different sensors which can be deployed on the roadside for collecting data regarding congestion which will be further processed by the micro controller situated on the traffic signal higher priority for emergency vehicles like Ambulance such that the lane that contains emergency vehicle would go first until emergency vehicle passes. A hybrid approach in [3] is used to optimize traffic flow on roads and an algorithm is devised to manage various traffic situations efficiently. The authors create a system that uses data from cameras and sensors to calculate traffic density and then adjusts traffic signals. During a traffic jam, the authors employed an algorithm based on Artificial Intelligence to forecast future traffic density and to decrease traffic congestion. They also utilized RFID to prioritize emergency vehicles such as ambulances and fire trucks. The authors also considered what would happen if there was a fire on the road, and how they would handle it. Smoke sensors were employed as part of the system to identify this circumstance. The efficiency of the suggested traffic management system has been shown by the authors using a prototype that not only optimizes traffic flow but also connects adjacent rescue departments to a centralized server.

2.2. Advanced Traffic Management System

The existing traffic prediction methods mostly dedicated to highway and urban traffic management, and limited studies focused on collector roads and closed campuses Authors said in [4] where they have proposed an IoT based system model to collect, process, and store real-time traffic data for such a scenario. The system’s main purpose was to increase mobility by providing real-time traffic updates on traffic congestion and odd traffic events via roadside messaging devices. The suggested technology might send out early warning signals to citizens, allowing them to save time, especially during peak hours. The device also transmits updates from the administrative authorities on traffic. With a Context of Bangladesh in [5] proposed a real-time traffic management system (TMS) using the Internet of Things (IoT) and data analytics. Ultrasonic sensors were used to detect traffic density, and after analyzing the sensor data, the system controller controlled the traffic signal timing using a traffic management algorithm, as well as sending data to a cloud server via a Wi-Fi module. As the authors pointed out, if an emergency vehicle is recognized, the proposed system offers priority, i.e. long signal duration, to pass through the intersection. If a car violates a traffic light, the system can identify it and issue a fine, which is paid through the Traffic Wallet smartphone app. This proposed system is low-cost, easy-to-install, and simple-to-maintain.

3. Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a paradigm in which objects with sensors, actuators, and processors interact with one another to accomplish a goal. About 85% of networks are disconnected and don’t exchange data with one another or the cloud, The Internet of Things (IoT) is one such technology that enables interconnection and also refers to making devices smarter by linking them online to acquire and process data, as mentioned by Authors in [6]. The basic concept of creating IoT architecture is to make the machine self-reliant while also being connected to a web server for signal reception. The Internet of Things (IoT) has now reached all corners of the globe is essentially a physical-digital interaction [7]. A plethora of sensors and actuators communicate between the digital and physical worlds as Figure 1(a) describe and Figure 1(b) give a deep understanding of how Sensors, actuators, and processors are used in IoT products.

(a) (b)

Figure 1. (a) IoT platform; (b) IoT platform.

3.1. Background on IoT Components in Vehicles

Vehicles of past year’s technology was not more developed compared with today’s technology as SAE has described in vehicle’s levels, where a digital revolution in the 21st century is in form of connected and autonomous vehicle (vehicle to everything, which includes vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-network, vehicle-to-cloud, vehicle-to-device and vehicle-to-pedestrian), and we are living in such kind of digital because of integration of Internet of Things (IoT) components have been applied into vehicles day to day as shown in Figure 2. They become part of a network. Vehicles can communicate with each other, with the surrounding infrastructure and with other drivers. Gradually the technologies of IoT in vehicles assisted driving (steering, acceleration and brake support) which help to decrease different problems in transportation [6]. As the technology in vehicle increase as the transportation issues decrease the international Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) helped to describe the technology in vehicles using levels on Figure 3.

Figure 2. Categories of connectivity based IoT.

Figure 3. Connected and autonomous vehicle levels [8].

3.2. Ways IoT Is Transforming Transportation Management

The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming our lives at a breakneck rate. Environmental monitoring and transportation networks are two areas where the Internet of Things finds use. This is particularly true in the automotive industry, which is home to some of the most significant inventions [9]. Here are some of the biggest ways the IoT is transforming the automotive industry and our roads [10]:

➢ The way people drive

➢ Reduce pollution and energy

➢ Improving road safety

➢ Solve traffic congestion in cities

➢ Expenditure

➢ Lead to better roads

➢ Environment applications

➢ Mobility applications

3.3. Intelligent Traffic Management System

As shown in Figure 4, an intelligent traffic management system based on IoT can be divided into three groups. This refers to a range of tools such as traffic engineering principles, software, hardware, and communication technologies that can be applied to the transportation system in an integrated manner to enhance its efficiency and safety. Table 1 discusses various methods of traffic and vehicle monitoring and control several techniques and methods are based on internet of things (IoT) approaches, as seen in Figure 5. For future Enhancement in Intelligent Transportation Management system Table 2 gives the inclusive outlook of few recent research articles in the intelligent traffic management system based on internet of things (IoT).

Figure 4. Intelligent traffic management system block.

Table 1. Technology and performance parameters used in transportation using IoT.

Figure 5. IoT approach for traffic management.

4. Future Anhancement in Intelligent Transportation Management System

Table 2. Future anhancement in intelligent transportation management system.

5. Conclusion

This research paper provides a comprehensive overview of the intelligent traffic system based on the Internet of Things (IoT), its benefits and drawbacks in terms of real-time analysis of traffic congestion, pedestrian crossings, and free path availability for emergency vehicles in urban areas, as well as its future development toward intelligent traffic regulations and alert systems for vehicles.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

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