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Effect of Supplemental Calcium Levels on Feedlot Growth Performance and Dietary Net Energy Utilization during the Receiving Feeding Period of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers

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DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2020.101001    102 Downloads   253 Views

ABSTRACT

Ninety-six calf-fed Holstein steer (127 kg) were used to evaluate the influence of supplemental dietary calcium (Ca) on growth-performance, and dietary net energy (NE) utilization during the initial 112-d of receiving period. Treatments consisted of steam flake corn-based growing-finishing diets supplemented with limestone to achieve 0.60%, 0.70%, 0.80%, or 0.90% dietary Ca (DM basis). Morbidity was low (6.3%) and it was not affected (P > 0.87) by dietary treatments. During the initial 84-d period (181 kg average BW), increasing dietary Ca did not influence (P > 0.10) DMI, ADG, gain efficiency or observed/expected DMI. Observed DMI was 19% greater than expected based on diet formulation and growth. Estimated metabolizable protein and methionine supply during the initial 84-d period averaged 92% and 79% of the required, respectively. The apparent decrease in efficiency of energy utilization in the present study is in close agreement with previous studies involving calf-fed Holstein steers in the early growing phase fed conventional growing-finishing diet that is otherwise deficient in metabolizable amino acids. Thus, it is considered that the anticipated growth-performance responses to dietary Ca treatments may have been masked by expected inefficiencies due to metabolizable amino acid deficiency. During the final 28-d period (256 kg of average BW), increasing supplemental Ca reduced feed intake (linear effect, P = 0.04) and enhanced gain efficiency (linear effect, P = 0.03). During this period, predicted ([1] Level 1) metabolizable protein and methionine supply were 110% and 94% of the required, respectively. Nevertheless, improvements in gain efficiency during the final 28-d period with increasing levels of supplemental Ca were not sufficient to influence (P > 0.10) overall 112-d growth-performance. It is concluded dietary Ca requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feeding period appear to be secondary to deficiencies of conventional steam-flaked corn-based diets in meeting metabolizable amino acid requirements. However, when those requirements are met during the early growing phase, gain efficiency responses are optimized at approximately 0.90% dietary Ca.

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Buenabad, L. , Latack, B. and Zinn, R. (2020) Effect of Supplemental Calcium Levels on Feedlot Growth Performance and Dietary Net Energy Utilization during the Receiving Feeding Period of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 10, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2020.101001.

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