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Partial Splenic Artery Embolization in Cirrhosis Is a Safe and Useful Procedure

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DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.89035    290 Downloads   765 Views

ABSTRACT

Background: Portal Hypertension is a common complication of cirrhosis. It leads to splenomegaly which manifests with features of hypersplenism. This results in leucopenia which increases the likelihood of sepsis and prevents treatment with interferon. Thrombocytopenia increases the risk of bleeding including variceal bleeds which make the anemia worse. This study was done to determine the usefulness and safety of partial splenic artery embolization (PSAE) in portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Methods: Patients with PSAE were identified by using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding from medical records and their charts were reviewed retrospectively. 25 patients underwent splenic artery embolization at The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from November 2000 to December 2016. 18 patients who underwent PSAE for disabling hypersplenism caused by cirrhosis were included. Patients who were under 18 year of age, or in whom PSAE were performed for reasons other than cirrhosis and those with missing records/incomplete data were excluded (n = 7). Information was collected regarding demographic details, procedure indications, nature, technique, clinical efficacy, repeat embolization and complications along with laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: Eighteen patients of cirrhosis with a mean age of 43.47 ± 10.926 years, of which 14 were males, underwent PSAE (19 procedures). Indications were severe hypersplenism which precluded treatment with interferon and ribavirin (n = 8) and recurrent Gastro-oesophageal variceal (GOV) bleeds due to advanced Child-Pugh grade and thrombocytopenia (n = 10). Hematological parameters improved significantly following PSAE. Three out of eight patients successfully completed interferon + ribavirin treatment for hepatitis C (HCV) infection post PSAE, and GOV bleeds stopped in eight out of 10 patients. Complications included mild Left upper quadrant (LUQ) abdominal pain n = 9 (47.3%), post-embolization syndrome n = 4 (21%), and clinically insignificant pleural effusion n = 4 (21%). One patient developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) which was appropriately managed. One patient needed re-emobilization after 6 months. Conclusion: PSAE is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of hypersplenism due to cirrhosis.

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Arisar, F. , Shah, S. and Haq, T. (2018) Partial Splenic Artery Embolization in Cirrhosis Is a Safe and Useful Procedure. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 8, 327-336. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.89035.

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