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Evolutionary Profile of Severe Acute Ulcerative Colitis in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.83012    356 Downloads   815 Views

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute colitis is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory, endoscopic and radiological. The severe acute colitis is a medical and surgical emergency; its mortality is 1% to 3%. The management should be swift and coordinated, upon admission, between medical and surgical teams. Methods: This is a retrospective study in Gastroenterology Service at the University Hospital HASSAN II Fez, over a period of 10 years (2005-2015). We included all patients admitted for severe acute colitis; all the epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic, histological, and therapeutic monitoring of patients were collected. Results: We collected 123 patients. Their average age was 35 years (16 - 70). It was a female predominance (sex ratio F/M = 1.19). 54 patients were admitted for an inaugural severe acute colitis (43%), while 69 patients were known carriers of IBD (56%). All patients were admitted to an array of severe acute colitis according to the criteria of Truelove and Witts modified. 9 patients were operated urgently because there was the presence of complications (5 cases of perforation, 3 cases of massive rectal bleeding, and one patient with an abscess in the right iliac fossa). Corticosteroids intravenously was administered to 114 patients, 74 patients (64%) had remission. Patients who have not responded to corticosteroids IV (N = 40): 1) 12 patients received treatment with oral cyclosporine: the remission rate was 66%. 2) 8 patients were put under Infliximab: The response rate was 75%. 3) Patients who have not responded to a second-line treatment underwent subtotal colectomy with a dual stoma. 4) The surgery was indicated as a second-line treatment in 20 patients who all received a subtotal colectomy with double stoma; totalizing colectomy and ileoanale anastomosis ware made in 4 patients. The mortality rate is higher in our series (12%) mainly postoperatively; it is due to the delayed admission of patients, which promotes the development of complications. Conclusion: Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis is a medical and surgical emergency that requires a multidisciplinary approach; medical treatment is the basis of initial treatment; but surgery must always be indicated at the right time avoiding increasing the death rate, this rate is important in our series.

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Abid, H. , Babakhouya, F. , Mellouki, I. , Yousfi, M. , Aqodad, N. , Benajah, D. , Ibrahimi, A. and Abkari, M. (2018) Evolutionary Profile of Severe Acute Ulcerative Colitis in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 8, 107-117. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.83012.

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