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Solid-Contact Perchlorate Sensor with Nanomolar Detection Limit Based on Cobalt Phthalocyanine Ionophores Covalently Attached to Polyacrylamide

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DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.27094    4,414 Downloads   8,590 Views Citations

ABSTRACT

Novel solid-contact perchlorate sensors based on cobalt phthalocyanine-C-monocarboxylic acid (I), and cobalt phthalocyanine-C,C,C,C-tetracarboxylic acid (II) as free ionophores and covalently attached to polyacryla- mide (PAA)—ionophores III and IV, respectively were prepared. The all solid-state sensors were constructed by the application of a thin film of a polymer cocktail containing a phthalocyanine ionophore and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) as a lipophilic cationic additive onto a gold electrode precoated with the conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as an ion and electron transducer. The sensor with 10.3% of ionophore (III) covalently attached to plasticizer-free poly (butyl methacrylate-co-do- decyl methacrylate) (PBDA) exhibited a good selectivity for perchlorate and discriminated many ions, in- cluding F–, Cl–, Br–, I–, SCN–, , S2– and . The covalent attachment of the ionophore to the polymer resulted in a near-Nernstian anionic slope of –62.3 mV/decade whereas a super-Nernstian slope of –79.9 mV/ decade was obtained for the free ionophore. The sensor covered a linear concentration range of 5 × 10–9 - 1 × 10–2 mol?L–1 with a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 × 10–9 mol?L–1 and gave a stable response over a pH range of 4 - 10.5. The all-solid state sensors were utilized for the selective flow injection potentiometric determination of perchlorate in natural water and human urine samples in the nanomolar concentration range.

Cite this paper

M. Abbas, A. Radwan, P. Bühlmann and M. Ghaffar, "Solid-Contact Perchlorate Sensor with Nanomolar Detection Limit Based on Cobalt Phthalocyanine Ionophores Covalently Attached to Polyacrylamide," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 820-831. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.27094.

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