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Clinical Response to Treatment of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis in Non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adolescents and Adults

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DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44020    970 Downloads   1,390 Views

ABSTRACT

Introduction: More than half of patients with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) die or are left with severe neurological deficits despite receiving anti-TB treatment. Aims of the study: This study examined risk factors associated with poor response to initial treatment with four anti-TB drug regimens or three drug regimens with steroids as adjuvant therapy. Methods: This study analyzed medical records from two tertiary hospitals in Busan, Korea, between January 2009 and March 2012. The subjects were non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients aged ≥16 years with clinical CNS TB. The subjects were divided into two groups according to response to treatment. Results: In totally, 52 patients with CNS TB were included. Of these, 14 (26%) and 38 (73%) showed poor and good responses, respectively. Of the patients with poor response, nine had stage III disease (64.3%) according to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging system. A significantly higher proportion was seen in the good response group (p < 0.05). Patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture, positive sputum AFB culture, positive CSF TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and brain tuberculoma had poorer responses (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis to determine risk factors associated with poor response to anti-TB therapy revealed that a poor response was associated with stage III clinical signs upon diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 32.122; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.221 - 464.605), positive sputum AFB culture (OR 13.624; 95% CI 1.066 - 174.149), and tuberculoma on brain images (OR 45.714; 95% CI 1.893 - 1104.018). Conclusions: The results demonstrate the importance of identifying the severity of CNS TB and promptly administering anti-TB drugs. It is necessary to perform drug susceptibility testing for anti-TB drugs. Further studies are needed to confirm the correlations between risk factors associated with poor response and anti-TB drug resistance and the other risk factors.

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Lee, J. , Lee, S. , Park, J. and Kim, M. (2016) Clinical Response to Treatment of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis in Non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adolescents and Adults. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 4, 173-182. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44020.

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