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Construction of Dry Cover System for Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage at Mine Waste Dump in Open Cast Coal Mines, Indonesia

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.72014    3,857 Downloads   5,167 Views Citations

ABSTRACT

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) which occurs when sulfide minerals are exposed to water and oxygen with an excavation is one of the serious environmental problems in the world. A dry cover system is generally constructed in waste dump for the prevention of AMD in Indonesia by virtue of low cost and availability of waste rocks for a cover layer. However, the failure of the system caused by the lack of information related to the construction of cover system in mines, which leads to AMD, has been reported recently in Indonesia. In this study, the field investigation was conducted in pit and waste dump in open cast coal mine in Indonesia with the aim of obtaining the information on the construction of a cover layer and backfilling conditions of waste rocks in the waste dump. The rock samples taken in two areas of the mine were analyzed by geochemical analysis and sequential extraction with acids. The results indicated that Net Acid Producing Potential (NAPP) of the rocks in the waste dump down to 100 cm depth in both areas was from 10 to 30 kg H2SO4/ton, suggesting that Potentially Acid Forming (PAF) was backfilled in a cover layer. The backfill of PAF was contrary to the concept of cover system, which caused the failure of constructing a cover layer. The cause of the failure was likely attributed to the shortage of cover rocks which are classified as Non Acid Forming (NAF) or the failure of proper placement of them by an operational problem in the areas. Moreover, the results of the extraction with acids suggested that the form of iron and sulfur has to be taken into account to discuss the occurrence of AMD.

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Matsumoto, S. , Shimada, H. , Sasaoka, T. , Kusuma, G. and Gautama, R. (2016) Construction of Dry Cover System for Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage at Mine Waste Dump in Open Cast Coal Mines, Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 160-169. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.72014.

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