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Gender Differences in Comorbidities and Sleep Patterns of Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.51006    4,169 Downloads   4,807 Views Citations
Author(s)
Ricardo José Benício Valadares, Klayton Galante Sousa, Marília Nascimento Espindola, Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos Santos, Carlos Alberto Assis Viegas

Affiliation(s)

Postgraduate School of Medicine at the University of Brasilia (UNB), Brasilia, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the comorbidities and sleep patterns most commonly associated with each gender in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese individuals with OSA. The polysomnographies were carried out in a sleep laboratory environment, using a 15-channel polysomnography setup. Airflow was measured using a nasal pressure cannula/thermistor combination. A standard handbook was used for interpretation of PSG findings. Results: A total of 284 subjects were included in the study, (147 females). The mean age, body mass index and neck circumference were similar between females and males (p = 0.9579, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively). On polysomnography, females exhibited longer latency to REM sleep (146.50 ± 85.93 vs. 122.3 ± 68.28, p = 0.0210) and a higher percentage of delta sleep (10.09 ± 7.48 vs. 7.55 ± 6.57, p = 0.0037); males had more frequent microarousals (38.37 ± 27.44 vs. 28.07 ± 21.23, p = 0.0017) and a higher AHI score (30.56 ± 27.52 vs. 17.31 ± 21.23, p < 0.0001). The comorbidities most commonly associated with female gender were diabetes (29% vs. 9.49%, p = 0.0132), hypothyroidism (20% vs. 2.19%, p < 0.0001), and depression (81.63% vs. 51.22%, p < 0.0001). Male gender was associated with myocardial infarction (6.57% vs. 1.38%, p = 0.0245) and alcohol intake (33.88% vs. 11.34%, p < 0.0001). Obese males with OSA have a larger neck circumference and higher AHI and arousal indices than females. Conclusions: There are genderdifferences both in the sleep patterns and in the comorbidities of patients with OSA. Men had a larger neck circumference, higher apnea and sleep fragmentation scores, were more likely to consume alcohol, and were more likely to have a history of myocardial infarction than women.

KEYWORDS

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Obesity, Gender, Comorbidity

Cite this paper

Valadares, R. , Sousa, K. , Espindola, M. , dos Santos, C. and Viegas, C. (2015) Gender Differences in Comorbidities and Sleep Patterns of Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. World Journal of Neuroscience, 5, 49-57. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2015.51006.
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