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Erratum to “Trump Presidential Survey: How Is He Doing?” [Open Journal of Social Sciences 7 (2019) 238-248]

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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.78020    78 Downloads   225 Views  

ABSTRACT

The original online version of this article Loffredo, D., Harrington, R. and Tavakkoli, A. (2019) Trump Presidential Survey: How Is He Doing? Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 238-248. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.77022 was published as some results data reported mistakenly. The author wishes to correct the errors to:

The purpose of the study was to generate a snapshot of how President Trump is doing based on the responses of 1754 participants who completed eight survey questions regarding President Trump on the 101 item National Pew September 2018 Political survey administered by telephone. Results indicated that survey participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly (statistically) not trustworthy, someone who doesn’t care about people like me, not even-tempered, and not well informed. However, survey participants did view Donald Trump as significantly (statistically) able to get things done, keep his promises, and stand up for what he believes in. Survey participants did not view Donald Trump significantly (statistically) either as a strong leader or not as a strong leader. In general, Republican and Democratic participants tended to view Donald Trump in a more partisan manner. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump significantly (statistically) favorably on three of the eight survey questions: able to get things done, keeps his promises, and stands up for what he believes in. Male and female participants had the same view (statistically significant) of Donald Trump on two of the eight survey questions: not trustworthy and stands up for what he believes in.

KEYWORDS

Table 2. Question 1. As I read some pairs of opposite phrases, tell me which one best reflects your impression of Donald Trump. Trustworthy or not trustworthy?

The participants showed a significant preference for the not trustworthy (510) rather than the trustworthy (321) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 831) = 42.99, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by gender on Question 1, χ2 (1, n = 831) = 5.14, p = 0.023. Males viewed Donald Trump as significantly not trustworthy (256) rather than trustworthy (187), χ2 (1, n = 443) = 10.75, p = 0.001. Females also viewed Donald Trump as significantly not trustworthy (254) rather than trustworthy (134), χ2 (1, n = 388) = 37.11, p < 0.001. The proportion of females was greater than males who endorsed the not trustworthy option. Not surprisingly, a chi-square test for independence revealed that there was a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democratic, or Independent) on Question 1, χ2 (2, n = 794) = 351.18, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly trustworthy (197) rather than not trustworthy (31), χ2 (1, n = 228) = 120.86, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not trustworthy (254) rather than trustworthy (10), χ2 (1, n = 254) = 215.58, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not trustworthy (209) rather than trustworthy (103), χ2 (1, n = 312) = 36.01, p < 0.001 (Table 3).

The participants showed a significant preference for the able to get things done (456) rather than the not able to get things done (375) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 831) = 7.90 p = 0.005. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by gender on Question 2, χ2 (1, n = 831) = 11.94, p = 0.001. Males viewed Donald Trump as significantly able to get things done (270) rather than not able to get things done (177), χ2 (1, n = 447) = 19.35, p = 0.001. Females did not view Donald Trump as significantly able (186) or not able to get things done (198), χ2 (1, n = 384) = 0.38, p = 0.54. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 2, χ2 (2, n = 792) = 295.03, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly able to get things done (215) rather than not able to get things done (13), χ2 (1, n = 228) = 178.97, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not able to get things done (208) rather than able to get things done (39), χ2 (1, n = 247) = 115.63, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly able to get things done (177) rather than not able to get things done (140), χ2 = 4.32, p = 0.038 (Table 4).

The participants did not view Donald Trump significantly either as a strong leader (397) or not a strong leader (447), χ2 (1, n = 844) = 2.96, p = 0.085. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by gender on Question 3, χ2 (1, n = 844) = 7.54, p = 0.006. Males did not view Donald Trump significantly either as a strong leader (232) or not a strong leader (219), χ2 (1, n = 451) = 0.375, p = 0.54. Females viewed Donald Trump as significantly not a strong leader (228) rather than a strong leader (165), χ2 (1, 393) = 10.01, p = 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 3, χ2 (2, n = 805) = 305.83, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as a strong leader (209) rather than not a strong leader (23), χ2 (1, n = 232) = 149.12, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as not a strong leader (227) rather than as a strong leader (28), χ2 (1, n = 255) = 155.30, p < 0.001. Independent participants did not view Donald Trump significantly as either a strong leader (144) or not a strong leader (174), χ2 (1, n = 318) = 2.83, p = 0.093 (Table 5).

The participants showed a significant preference for the someone who doesn’t care about people like me (492) rather than the someone who cares about people like me (342) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 834) = 26.98, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated a significant difference by gender on Question 4, χ2 (1, n = 834) = 8.91, p = 0.003. Males did not view Donald Trump significantly either as someone who cares about people like me (202) or someone who does not care about people like me (239), χ2 (1, n = 441) = 3.10, p = 0.078. Females viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who doesn’t care about people like me (253) rather than as someone who does cares about people like me (140), χ2 (1, n = 393) = 32.49, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence revealed that there was a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 4, χ2 (2, n = 796) = 328.13, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who cares about people like me (200) rather than as someone who doesn’t care about people like me (30), χ2 (1, n = 230) = 125.65, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who doesn’t care about people like me (237) rather than as someone who cares about people like me (16), χ2 (1, n = 253) = 193.05, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who doesn’t care about people like me (199) rather than as someone who does care about people like me (114), χ2 (1, n = 313) = 23.08, p < 0.001 (Table 6).

The participants showed a significant preference for the not even-tempered (629) rather than the even-tempered (208) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 837) = 211.76, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated that there was no significant difference by gender on Question 5, χ2 (1, n = 837) = 2.09, p = 0.148. A chi-square test for independence revealed that there was a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 5, χ2 (2, n = 800) = 159.81, p < 0.001. Republican participants did not view Donald Trump significantly either as even-tempered (126) or not even- tempered (106), χ2 (1, n = 232) = 1.72, p = 0.189. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not even-tempered (266) rather than even-tem- pered (21), χ2 (1, n = 287) = 209.15, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not even-tempered (228) rather than as even- tempered (53), χ2 (1, n = 281) = 108.99, p < 0.001 (Table 7).

The participants showed a significant preference for the not well-informed (483) rather than the well-informed (359) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 842) = 18.26, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated that there was a significant difference by gender on Question 6, χ2 (1, n = 842) = 18.54, p < 0.001. Males did not view Donald Trump as significantly either well informed (234) or not well informed (243), χ2 (1, n = 477) = 0.170, p = 0.680. Females viewed Donald Trump as significantly not well-informed (240) rather than well-informed (125), χ2 (1, n = 365) = 36.23, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence revealed that there was a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 6, χ2 (2, n = 807) = 324.01, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly well- informed (206) rather than not well-informed (32), χ2 (1, n = 238) = 127.21, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not well informed (261) rather than well informed (24), χ2 (1, n = 285) = 197.08, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly not well-informed (168) rather than well-informed (116), χ2 (1, n = 284) = 9.52, p = 0.002 (Table 8).

The participants showed a significant preference for the does keep his promises (456) rather than the doesn’t keep his promises (374) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 830) = 8.10, p = 0.004. A chi-square test for independence indicated that there was a significant difference by gender on Question 7, χ2 (1, n = 830) = 18.68, p < 0.001. Males viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who keeps his promises (290) rather than someone who doesn’t keep his promises (182), χ2 (1, n = 472) = 24.71, p < 0.001. Females did not view Donald Trump significantly either as someone who keeps his promises (166) or as someone who doesn’t keep his promises (192), χ2 (1, 358) = 1.89, p = 0.169. A chi-square test for independence revealed that there was a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 7, χ2 (2, n = 798) = 281.72, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who keeps his promises (225) rather than someone who doesn’t keep his promises (13), χ2 (1, n = 238) = 188.84, p < 0.001. Democratic participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who doesn’t keeps his promises (221) rather than someone who does keep his promises (59), χ2 (1, n = 280) = 93.73, p < 0.001. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who keeps his promises (160) rather than as someone who doesn’t keep his promises (120), χ2 (1, n = 280) = 5.71, p = 0.017 (Table 9).

The participants showed a significant preference for the someone who stands up for what he believes in (608) rather than the someone who doesn’t stand up for what he believes in (220) impression of Donald Trump, χ2 (1, n = 828) = 181.82, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence indicated that there was a significant difference by gender on Question 8, χ2 (1, n = 828) = 4.11, p = 0.043. Males viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who stands up for what he believes in (363) rather than as someone who doesn’t stand up for what he believes in (114), χ2 (1, n = 477) = 129.98, p < 0.001. Females also viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who stands up for what he believes in (245) rather than someone who doesn’t stand up for what he believes in (106) but in a lesser proportion to males, χ2 (1, n = 351) = 55.05, p < 0.001. A chi-square test for independence revealed a significant difference by political party (Republican, Democrat, or Independent) on Question 8, χ2 (2, n = 792) = 114.37, p < 0.001. Republican participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who stands up for what he believes in (235) rather than as someone who doesn’t stand up for what he believes in (11), χ2 (1, n = 246) = 203.97, p < 0.001. Democratic participants did not view Donald Trump significantly either as someone who does (145) or doesn’t (123) stand up for what he believes in, χ2 (1, n = 268) = 1.81, p = 0.179. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump significantly as someone who stands up for what he believes in (206) rather than as someone who doesn’t stand up for what he believes in (72), χ2 (1, n = 278) = 64.59, p < 0.001.

4. Discussion

The results indicated that survey participants viewed Donald Trump as significantly (statistically) not trustworthy, someone who doesn’t care about people like me, not even-tempered, and not well informed. However, survey participants did view Donald Trump as significantly (statistically) able to get things done, keep his promises, and stand up for what he believes in. Survey participants did not view Donald Trump significantly (statistically) either as a strong leader or not as a strong leader. In general, Republican and Democratic participants tended to view Donald Trump in a more partisan manner. Not surprisingly, Republican participants had a statistically significant more favorable impression of Donald Trump on all but one (neutral on temperament) of the eight survey questions. Independent participants viewed Donald Trump significantly favorably (statistically) on three of the eight survey questions: able to get things done, keeps his promises, and stands up for what he believes in. Male and female participants had the same view (statistically significant) of Donald Trump on only two of the eight survey questions: not trustworthy and stands up for what he believes in. The extreme differences between Democrat and Republican participants on some of the eight survey questions mirrors the seemingly growing animosity between the two political parties over the Trump presidency and just about every other political issue. The social and political implications of this study are that President Trump is a polarizing figure to the American electorate with Republicans widely approving of him and Democrats widely disapproving of him. Trump’s foreign policy is at odds with traditional allies of the United States and Trump’s international ratings remain low, especially with key allies [8].

5. Conclusion

Although the data for this survey came from a national US sample of 1754 participants, approximately 71% of the sample was White non-Hispanic. Future surveys should include larger sample sizes and match current population percentages of the US population indicated below. As of July 1, 2018, the US population percentages were as expressed in Table 10 [9].

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Loffredo, D. , Harrington, R. and Tavakkoli, A. (2019) Erratum to “Trump Presidential Survey: How Is He Doing?” [Open Journal of Social Sciences 7 (2019) 238-248]. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 287-292. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.78020.
  
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