Share This Article:

Assessment of Irrigation Dynamics on Vegetable Production Safety in the Accra Metropolis

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101889    616 Downloads   900 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This work assessed modes of irrigation on vegetable production in fifty (50) vegetable gardens from ten (10) sampled areas in the Accra Metropolis. Irrigation water sources include: pipe, segment, gutter, dug-well, dam, river, and drains. Demographic survey, nature of the surrounding of the water bodies, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of irrigation waters were carried out and contrasted with standard values. The analysis of the parameters of various water samples was within the accepted standard values, except the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value for the irrigation water from Opeibea (3020) and Kasoa (340), which were relatively high compared to standard value of 250. The faecal coliform counts for irrigation water at Abossey-Okai are also high (1150/100 ml) compared to the standard values of 1000/100 ml irrigation water. The vegetable farming was found to be a male dominated activity (86%), mostly practised by 21 - 30 year age group (69%). However the education levels of farmers are low; 70% either do not have formal education or only up to primary education levels. A greater percentage (68%) of the water used for irrigation was waste water, mostly from gutters and segments. Proper management practices of effluent are recommended for vegetable production.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Achio, S. , Kutsanedzie, F. and Ameko, E. (2015) Assessment of Irrigation Dynamics on Vegetable Production Safety in the Accra Metropolis. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101889.

References

[1] Sonou, O.B. (2000) Overview of Urban Agriculture and Food Security in West African Cities. In: Akinbamijo, O.O., Fall, S.T. and Smith, O.B., Eds., Advances in Crop-Livestock Integration in West African Cities, Grafisch Bedrijf Ponseen en Looijen, Wageningen, 17-36.
[2] Keraita, B.P., Drechsel, F.H. and Raschiid-Sally, L. (2002) Wastewater Use in Informal Irrigation. Urban Agriculture Magazine, 8, 11-13.
[3] Steele, M. and Odumeru, J. (2004) Irrigation Water as a Source of Food Borne Pathogens on Fruits and Vegetables. Journal of Food Protect ion, 67, 2829-2849.
[4] Obuobie, E., Keraita, B., Danso, G., Amoah, P., Coffie, O.O., Raschid-Sally, L. and Drechsel, P. (2006) Irrigated Urban Vegetable Production in Ghana: Characteristic, Benefits and Risk. IWMI-RUAF-IDRC-CPWF, Accra. IW MI, 150.
[5] Barnes, J.M. and Taylor, M.B. (2004) Health Risk Assessment in Connection with the Use of Microbiologically Contaminated Source Waters for Irrigation. Water Research Report No.1226/1/04, Pretoria, South Africa.
[6] Johnson, L.M., Moe, C.L., Moll, D. and Jaykus, L. (2006) The Epidermiology of Produce Associated Outbreaks of Food Borne Disease. In: James, J., Ed., Microbial Hazard Identification in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, 38-52.
[7] Adjasah, A. (2014) “Farmers Introduced to Greenhouse Farming” Daily Graphic. 11 October 2014. Accra, 44.
[8] Panglisch, S., Andreas, L.B. and Gimble, R. (2007) Particle Removal with Membranes in Water Treatment in Germany—State of the Art and Further Developments. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology, 56, 375-383.
[9] Achio, S., Addo, D. and Quist, M. (2009) Qualitative Analysis of Wastewater Used for Vegetable Cultivation in Accra Metropolis in Ghana. International Journal of Biological Science, 1, 105-110.
[10] AMA (2009) Metro Information.
http://ama.ghanadistricts.gov.gh/?arrow=dnf&_=3&r=1&rlv=climate
[11] American Society for Testing and Materials (1995) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Oxygen Demand (Dichromate Oxygen Demand) of Water. D1252-95, ASTM Annual Book of Standards. American Soc. Testing & Materials, Philadelphia.
[12] APHA (1992) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th Edition, American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), Washington DC.
[13] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2001) States of Wastewater Treatment Plan in Ghana. EPA, Accra.
[14] WHO (2006) Guidelines for Safe Use Of Wastewater, Excreta and Grey Water. Vol. 2. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. WHO, Geneva.
[15] Abu-Ashour, J., Joy, D.M., Lee, H., Whiteley, H.R. and Zelin, S. (1994) Transport of Microorganisms through Soil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 75, 141-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01100406

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.