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KELEA (Kinetic Energy Limiting Electrostatic Attraction) May Add to the Measured Weight of an Object

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DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.76048    2,238 Downloads   2,723 Views   Citations
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ABSTRACT

Fluctuating measurements of the weight of aluminum foil objects have been observed during the course of experiments on a natural force termed KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction). This observation runs counter to the assumption that the weight of an object is a fixed measure of the earth’s gravity acting on the particular object. Gravity is generally understood as being a passive process in which there is a direct relationship between the mass of an object and its capacity to curve space-time. The induced space-time curvature then determines the movements of masses towards one another. It is possible, however, that the mass of an object is also directly influenced by the action of an external energy force. Specifically, this paper proposes that absorbed KELEA may in addition to contributing to the kinetic activity of fluid molecules may also add to the measured weight of certain objects. While conducting studies on the capacity of KELEA to add kinetic activity to fluids, considerable variability over time occurred in the repeated measurements of the weight of an aluminum foil. The increase in weight is considered unlikely to be due to aluminum or other atoms being added to the foil, or due to an increase in the net energy of the foil. Rather, it is suggested that an environmental factor, presumably KELEA, can either be providing a continuing impact force on the foil or intrinsically altering the interaction of the mass of the foil with space-time. A second aluminum foil showed a similar pattern of weight changes consistent with an environmental effect. The relatively simple monitoring of fluctuating weight changes provides a robust system for analyzing KELEA. Further studies on the reported phenomenon may help in reshaping some of the basic concepts of mass and gravity.

Received 15 February 2016; accepted 15 March 2016; published 18 March 2016

1. Introduction

The weight of an object on earth is generally considered a direct measure of its mass compared to the far greater mass of the earth. Albert Einstein introduced the concept that a curvature dimension of space-time is changed in the vicinity of mass objects [1] . The space-time curvature is such that unrestrained, initially stationary objects will move towards one another in a path that directly extends between the two objects.

Space-time curvature is similarly used to explain the paths traversed by celestial bodies, including the earth’s rotation around the sun. This rotation is essentially sustained by a balancing effect of the outward angular momentum of the orbiting earth versus the inward curvature of space-time, which comprises the sun’s gravity. The earth also sustains a daily rotation, while the sun and planets are moving on a rotational path within its galaxy. Moreover, different galaxies and their celestial bodies are continually moving within an ever-expanding universe.

Tesla is among other researchers who realize that gravity does not explain how celestial bodies initially acquired their momentum [2] . Kinetic energy (KE) is required to initiate motion and to sustain constant motion in the presence of factors that might otherwise lead to a change in motion. Prior to Einstein’s concept, consideration had been given to possibly either a direct pulling force between objects or an external pushing force that was reduced in the region between objects [3] [4] . A pushing force could also impart KE to objects independent of the presence of other objects. Such a force would presumably exist throughout the universe, possibly comprising the ether or a “fifth” force [5] [6] . While, Einstein successfully argued that the proposed ether was not required to explain curved space-time, he never actually excluded its existence [7] .

A natural KE has been proposed that limits electrostatic attraction between charged objects with opposite electrical charges [8] - [10] . This energy may also explain the repulsive force between objects with similar electrical charge. The energy is referred to as KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction). KELEA is seemingly attracted to dipolar compounds with separated electrical charges. Moreover, some of these dipolar compounds can transfer the energy to nearby fluids, possibly in an oscillatory manner. Within the fluids, KELEA appears to loosen the strength of the electrostatic hydrogen bonding between the fluid molecules. This leads to greater volatility of the activated fluid molecules, measured as an increase in the rate of weight loss in closed but not completely sealed containers. Typically, weight losses of 0.5 to 5.0 mg/ml can be recorded in activated water over the same time period that the weight loss in control, non-activated water is <0.1 mg/ml [8] - [10] .

In conducting these experiments, numerous instances have been encountered in which the measured weight of various objects have shown minor but unmistakable fluctuations, including increases. The weight changes observed with certain objects and compounds were well beyond those explainable by observer error or malfunction of the weighing scale. Moreover, highly reproducible, exactly constant weights were regularly seen with most other objects, including standard weights. It appeared that the measured weights of certain compounds and objects were being subjected to periodic changes in an environmental influence. As part of these studies, aluminum foil with holographic designs was being tested for the ability to activate water. Having noted prior weight changes in several of the aluminum foils, a more detailed study was undertaken using two new pieces of foil. This article presents the variable readings obtained from the repeated weighing of these two pieces of aluminum foil. The results are contrasted with the far less variable measurements of the weight of a small piece of self-sealing silicone tape. The described system provides a useful model for further studies.

2. Materials and Methods

Two strips of holographic aluminum foil, 2.5 × 8.625 and 2.5 × 8.5 inches, respectively were kindly provided by Nova Vision, Boiling Green, Ohio. The holographic design was that of “cracked glass” with triangular, rectangular and ellipsoid overlapping shapes, up to approximately ¼ inch in the longest dimension. The strips were wrapped into separate 2.5 inch by approximately 1” diameter coils using a single paper clip for each coil. The paper clip attached to the slightly longer coil (coil #1) weighed 0.9364 gm. A lighter paper clip weighting 0.4891 gm was attached to the smaller coil (coil #2). The smaller coil had the aluminum surface on the outside, while coil #1 had the paper backing on the outside. The weights of the coils were periodically measured by placing each coil vertically onto the weighing pan of a Sartorius electronic balance reading to 0.1 milligram (mg). One or more daily weight measurements were obtained between May 2, 2014 and August 1, 2014 (82 days). The elapsed times from the first weighing at time zero (0 hours) were expressed as the total hours from the first weighting. Various water containing, capped glass vials were also being weighed during the study period. They all showed progressive losses in their measured weights, consistent with differing levels of KELEA mediated water activation. Another item being weighed during the study period was a folded piece of self-seal- ing silicone tape. The piece of tape was 2-inches long and 1-inch wide before being folded, once over. The tape provided a suitable control for the coils since its weight generally remained steady throughout the experiment.

3. Results

The beginning weights of each of the two coils with its attached paper clip were 3.5735 gm and 3.0827 gm, respectively. The beginning weight of the silicone tape was 0.9198 gm. The experiment began on May 2, 2014 and was terminated on August 1, 2014. The 3 items were repeatedly weighed at several times on many of the days. The time of weighing was recorded to the nearest quarter of an hour and was also expressed as the total elapsed time from the initial weighing. The dates and time in the days at which the items were weighed, along with the elapsed time in hours and the actual weight measurements of the 3 items are shown in Table 1.

Analysis of Table 1 reveals far more variability in the recorded weights of the two coils, compared to the recorded weights of the silicone tape. To better illustrate this variability, the time zero weights of the items were subtracted from all of the measured weights and expressed as a difference in mg from the time zero weight. The data confirm the far greater variability in weighing of the aluminum foils than the silicone tape.

Two time periods were chosen to graphically illustrate the parallel weight variability of the coils and the essentially stable weight of the silicone tape. Figure 1 is a graph of the variational weight data obtained over the period extending from the beginning measurement to an elapsed time of 99 hours. It shows three cycles of similar early fluctuations in the weights of the two aluminum foils over approximately 60 hours followed by a steady increase in the weights of the two coils. By contrast, there was essentially no change in the weight of the silicone tape over the same period.

Figure 2 records the changes in weights of the two coils during the elapsed time period from hour 200 to hour 448. This time period is included because it shows a parallel initial loss in weights of the coils to below their be- ginning weights, followed by regaining of the previously recorded increased weights of the coils. There was essentially no weight change occurring in the silicone tape over this period.

Overall, both aluminum coils showed rather remarkable increases in their weights over the study period. The highest weight for each aluminum coil was recorded on July 17, 2014. When compared to the initial weight measurements at the start of the experiment on May 2, 2014, the July 17, 2014 values indicate an increase of 30.6

Figure 1. Changes in the measured weight of three items over an elapsed period of 99 hours. The changes are expressed in milligrams (mg) for each of the three items compared to the initial weight of the item at time zero (0 hour). The two items showing the fluctuating weight measurements were the coils of aluminum sheets onto which a cracked glass holographic pattern had been embossed. The item showing an essentially constant weight was a piece of folded self adhering silicone tape. The initial weight of coil number 1 with its paper clip was 3.5735 gm and its weight change is indicated with the ▲ symbol. The initial weight of coil number 2 with its paper clip was 3.0827 gm and its weight change is indicated with the ? symbol. The initial weight of the silicone tape was 0.9198 and its weight change is indicated with the o symbol.

Table 1. In column 1 are the dates in 2014 on which weight measurements were performed. The time of day of the measurements are recorded in column 2 on the basis of a 24-hour day. The third column shows the number of hours that had elapsed since the initial measurement. The final three columns show the actual recorded weights of the three items in gm.

Figure 2. Changes in the measured weight of three items referred to in Figure 1 over the period from 200 to 448 hours after the initial measurements. The changes in weight are similarly expressed as the differences in mg from the initial weight measured at time zero (0 Hour). The two items showing the reductions with subsequent regaining of their earlier weights were the coils of aluminum sheets onto which a cracked glass holographic pattern had been embossed. The item showing an essentially constant weight throughout the time period was a piece of folded self adhering silicone tape. At the 200-hour time period, the weights of both of the coils were higher than their initial weights at time zero (0 Hour). The measured weights of coil number 1 are indicated with the ▲ symbol. The measured weights of coil number 2 are indicated with the ? symbol. The measured weights of the silicone tape are indicated with the o symbol.

mg for coil number 1 and 39.5 mg for coil number 2. At the final measurements on August 1, 2014, the increases in weight, compared to initial weight measurements of the two aluminum coils, were 23.4 mg for coil number 1 and 32.6 mg for coil number 2, respectively. The maximum increase in the weight of the silicone tape, compared to its initial weight, was 2.7 mg and was recorded on both July 4 and July 6, 2014. The final measurement on the silicone tape showed a 1.5 mg increase from its initial weight.

4. Discussion

The primary purpose of presenting the data is to question the generally held belief that the weight of a stationary object on earth is solely and invariably related to the amount of matter, expressed as the atomic elements comprising the object. The data are also presented in support of the evolving concept of KELEA as an external energy force. The present understanding of KELEA is based upon the presumption that a force must exist, which limits the fusion and possible annihilation of opposite electrical charges. This premise has helped explain certain observations, as well as leading to verifiable predictions. Specifically, it explains how KELEA can loosen the strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between fluid molecules and can probably additionally impart a dynamic quality to the fluid molecules. The added energy is reflected in a progressive reduction in the weight of the fluid [8] - [10] . It is also consistent with the many beneficial health, agriculture and industrial applications of KELEA activated water [11] .

Most of the KELEA-related studies performed over the last several years have measured increased rates of weight loss in activated fluids, including water and gasoline. While experimenting with ways of capturing KELEA and transferring it to fluids, minor and variable increases in the weight of various compounds and objects were unexpectedly observed. Some of the earlier observations occurred with a range of dipolar chemical compounds. Examples included humic/fulvic acids, zeolites, volcanic rock pellets and magnesium oxide granules. The observed weight gains in these chemicals were not actively pursued since the chemicals could be mildly hydroscopic with the added weight being due to absorbed moisture. This explanation does not easily apply, however, to observed weight changes in aluminum stickers embossed with holographic designs. The stickers were being tested for water activating activity on the assumption that the embossing process may have led to electrical charge separation from differential patterns of surface oxidation. The separated charges could conceivably allow for the attraction of KELEA and its possible release to nearby water. Although the reported studies have involved the use of aluminum strips with holographic design, subsequent experiments have confirmed fluctuating weight changes occurring in regular aluminum foil. By contrast, standard weights have shown no changes over time and consecutively repeated measurements on many other items have also yielded highly consistent weight measurements to within 0.1 mg.

The notion that KELEA is responsible for the changes in weight is still hypothetical. KELEA is likely to have an impact force when it transfers its energy to compounds with separated charges. This could be a recurring process, with the absorbed energy being transduced to other energy forms. To relate this effect to weight, it has to be assumed that because of the earth’s greater absorption of KELEA that a downward gradient exits in the level of KELEA. Rather than imparting random motions to fluid molecules, KELEA could, thereby, exert a net downward force on solid objects, recordable as added weight.

This notion is essentially a restatement of La Sage’s pushing theory of gravity [3] [4] , as well as the broader concept of ether as a fifth force [6] . A natural force is postulated that is attracted to all mass objects. Because of shielding and/or additive absorption, the force was postulated to be lower within the region between two objects, compared to the region external to the objects. The greater external force would, thereby, be active in pushing objects towards one another. Because of the presumed earth’s dominating absorption of the force, there would be a downward net force acting on all objects and contributing to the weight of the objects. These same considerations apply to KELEA, the only difference being KELEA is attracted to separated electrical charges rather than some other aspect of an object.

On the premise of KELEA being attracted to electrical charges, there could be an imposed limit on the amount and on the rate of continuing KELEA attraction by an item that is already highly charged. This would be consistent with the apparent reduction in weight of charged electrical capacitors (Biefeld-Brown effect) [12] [13] . It is also possible that the reduction in KELEA between closely adjacent objects explains the inward move- ment of objects positioned so as to be nearly touching each other and known as the Casimir effect [14] .

The reported findings in this paper can also be discussed in terms of the more modern concepts of gravity and mass. The present view is that gravity is essentially a passive process that occurs in response to mass being able to directly induce an inward curvature of space-time. The actual mode of interaction of mass with space-time is speculative with suggestions of possible resonance between phonon qualities of mass and space-time.

Mass (m) multiplied by the square of the speed of light (c) was initially identified as a transformation of energy (E) according to the formula E = mc2. Objects were originally considered as completely comprising physical particles able to engage with and quantitatively affect the space-time field. The view that mass is solely comprised of physical particles has been substantially modified by attributing intrinsic energies to objects due to interactive forces between the physical particles, including neutrons and protons and their component quarks. In other words, actual physical particles contribute only a fraction of the entire energy of an object, as reflected in the formula E=mc2. Physicists generally favor the notion that the associated energies, in addition to the actual physical particles, are interactive with space-time. Based on this assumption, weight gain can occur by either the addition of physical particles to an object or an increase in the intrinsic energy component of an object. A third possibility is enhanced engagement of the object’s existing mass with space-time. This latter possibility may relate to some of the reported examples of levitation, if these examples are reflective of a lessening of the interactive process of mass with space-time.

The prospect that the approximately 35 mg average maximum increase in weight in each of the aluminum foils is actually due to added molecules seems very unlikely. With an atomic weight of 26.98 gm per mole, 35 mg of aluminum is approximately 0.0013 moles. Applying Avogadro’s number (6.02 × 1023), if the weight increase was due to aluminum, it would comprise 7.81 × 1020 additional atoms! Furthermore, the rate of change is more variable over time to suggest the creation and disappearance of atoms. In terms of added energy, using the E = mc2 formula, 35 mg gain of weight of an aluminum foil is the equivalent of 3.15 × 1012 Joules!

A defined relationship exists between the weight of a given compound and the energy yielded upon its combustion. It will be worthwhile, therefore, to perform energy-yielding combustion studies on sample objects showing KELEA induced weight changes. If the combustion yield is not increased, it would favor the view of KELEA either providing a downward acting net impact force or more intriguingly, changing the interaction between mass and space-time. In other words, it is possible that KELEA can directly affect the coupling between mass and space-time.

Energy forces are typically separated into those that are easily measurable by being transferable to a detector and those that typically cannot be easily transferred in a directional (vector) manner. Various names have been proposed for the energy(ies) included in the latter grouping including; dark energy, scalar energy, zero-point energy (ZPE), etc. Various forms of energy are interchangeable and situations are likely to occur in which a normally non-vectored energy can transform into observable phenomena. For example, an energy termed “odic” by Karl Reichenbach [15] , was seemingly able to ionize air molecules, such that they could be visualized by individuals in a darkened room. The radiant or impulse energy of Tesla [2] was able to induce electrostatic charges on distant objects. The orgone energy of Reich [16] can delay the electrostatic discharge from a charged electroscope. It can also slightly increase the ambient temperature, a phenomenon he demonstrated to Einstein [17] . The energy in ignited Brown’s gas was shown to suppress the radioactivity emitted by 60cobalt isotope [18] . There is reason to suggest that all of these investigators were witnessing different manifestations of the same energy force, which the author has designated KELEA. Thus, a common feature of several non-conventional energy forces is the apparent ability to increase the KE of fluids.

An interface between physics and biology is also suggested in the concepts of cold fusion [19] and abiotic synthesis [20] . The former refers to the joining at ordinary temperatures of nuclei of various elements. The inter- action of the nuclei can potentially yield elements with a higher atomic number than either of the interacting elements. In abiotic synthesis, relatively simple molecules join to yield more complex compounds, without the need of enzymes. Both cold fusion and abiotic synthesis represent a gain in overall energy. A role for KELEA in abiotic synthesis is strongly suggested by the formation of lipid structures in fluids containing alternative cellular energy (ACE) pigments [21] .

While the focus of this paper has been on the increase in measured weight, the observed decreases in weight of the aluminum foils require an explanation. Based on their ability to activate water, the aluminum foils are presumably also involved in transmitting KELEA. The release of KELEA may account for the times in which the measured weights are lowered. Thus, the net change in weight of the aluminum foils may reflect the relative balance between receiving and transmitting KELEA. KELEA is likely to be carried to earth via cosmic rays. As such, it may be involved in the formation of clouds by activating cloud condensation nuclei. As suggested elsewhere [22] it is possible that cloud forming levels of KELEA are being reduced by KELEA transfer to the increasing electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere. The system described in this paper might prove useful in testing this hypothesis.

5. Conclusion

A striking observation during the course of experiments on various methods for activating water is that the weight of certain objects can undergo fluctuations, including increases beyond the originally measured weight. The results on aluminum foil are consistent with the absorption of an environmental force termed KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction). It is proposed that KELEA may either be expressed as increased kinetic energy or reflected as an increased measured weight. Among the various possible interpretations of the added weight is that KELEA comprises a force comparable to that proposed by La Sage in his pushing theory of gravity. Another possibility is that KELEA increases the engagement of mass with space-time. The ease of performing weighing experiments should enable further exploration of the phenomenon reported in this paper.

Acknowledgements

The Institute of Progressive Medicine is a component of MI Hope Inc., a non-profit public charity.

Conflict of Interest

None.

Abbreviations

KELEA―kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction, KE―kinetic energy, gm―gram, mg―milligram, ml― milliliter, #―number.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Martin, W. (2016) KELEA (Kinetic Energy Limiting Electrostatic Attraction) May Add to the Measured Weight of an Object. Journal of Modern Physics, 7, 461-472. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2016.76048.

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