Share This Article:

Conversion Rate of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Open Surgery at Al Karamah Teaching Hospital, Iraq

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:226KB) PP. 221-226
DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.65034    2,542 Downloads   3,215 Views   Citations


Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for symptomatic gall bladder disease. However, there still a substantial proportion of patients in whom Laparoscopic cholecystectomy cannot be successfully performed, and for whom conversion to open surgery is required. Method: In this study, 1600 laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed at Al karamah teaching hospital from January 2010 to January 2015, were prospectively analyzed. The patients studied included 1600, 1245 where females (78.4%) and 346 where males (21.6%) with a mean age of 41.2 years. From the data collected, only factors available to surgeon preoperatively were considered for analysis. These factors included: age, gender, history of acute Cholecystitis, jaundice, previous abdominal surgery, obesity and concomitant disease, ultrasound preoperatively & ERCP. Results: Of the 1600 patients in whom Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was attempted 56 patients (3.5%) required conversion to open surgery. The most common reason for conversion was difficult to define anatomy in patients with inflamed, contracted gall bladder (n = 42). Significant predictor factors for conversion were male gender, previous abdominal surgery, acute Cholecystitis, and obesity. Conclusion: An appreciation for these predictors for conversion will allow appropriate planning by the patient, the institution and the surgeon.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Abdulhussein, B. , Hussein, Y. , Nawar, A. and Al-Naggar, R. (2015) Conversion Rate of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Open Surgery at Al Karamah Teaching Hospital, Iraq. Surgical Science, 6, 221-226. doi: 10.4236/ss.2015.65034.


[1] Bittner, R. (2006) Laparoscopic Surgery: 15 Years after Clinical Introduction. World Journal of Surgery, 30, 1190-1203.
[2] Reynolds, W. (2001) The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. JSLS, 5, 89-94.
[3] Shamiyeh, A. and Wayand, W. (2004) Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Early and Late Complications and Their Treatment. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, 389, 164-171.
[4] Sicklick, J.K., Camp, M.S., Lillemoe, K.D., Melton, G.B., Yeo, C.J., Campbel, K.A., et al. (2005) Surgical Management of Bile Duct Injuries Sustained during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Annals of Surgery, 241, 786-795.
[5] Tayeb, M., Raza, S.A., Khan, M.R. and Azami, R. (2005) Conversion from Laparoscopic to Open Cholecystectomy: Multivariate Analysis of Preoperative Risk Factors. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 51, 234-238.
[6] Cushier, A., Dubois, F., Moniel, J., Mouret, P., Becher, H., Buess, G., Trede, M. and Traidl, H. (1991) The European Experience with Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. American Journal of Surgery, 161, 385-387.
[7] Deizel, D.D., Millikan, K.W. and Airan, M.C. (1993) Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A National Survey of 4292 Hospitals and Analysis of 77,604 Cases. American Journal of Surgery, 165, 9-14.
[8] Scott, T.R., Zucker, K.A. and Boiley, R.W. (1992) Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Review of 12,397 Patient. Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy, 3,191-198.
[9] (1991) Southern Surgeon Club a Prospective Analysis of 1518 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 1073-1078.
[10] Wolfe, B.M., Gardiner, B.N., Leary, B.F. and Frey, C.F. (1991) Endoscopic Cholecystectomy: An Analysis of Complications. Archives of Surgery, 126, 1192-1198.
[11] Burkun, J.S., Burkun, A.N., Samplis, J.S., Fried, G., Taylor, B., Wevler, M.J., Goresky, C.A. and Meakins, J.L. (1992) Randomized Controlled Trial of Laparoscopic versus Minicholecystectomy. Lancet, 340, 1116-1119.
[12] Liu, C.-L., Fan, S.-T., Lai, E.C., Lo, C.-M. and Chu, K.-M. (1996) Factors Affecting Conversion of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Open Surgery. Archives of Surgery, 131, 98-101.
[13] Fried, G.M., Burkan, J.S. and Meakins, J.L. (1994) Factors Determining Conversion to Laparotomy in Patient Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. American Journal of Surgery, 167, 35-41.
[14] Peters, J.H., Krailadsiri, W., Incorbene, R., Bremner, C.G., Froes, E., Ireland, A.P. and Stain, S.A. (1994) Reason for Conversion from Laparoscopic to Open Cholecystectomy in an Urban Teaching Hospital. American Journal of Surgery, 168, 555-559.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.