Share This Article:

The Effect of Projection Microstereolithographic Fabricated Implant Geometry on Myocutaneous Revascularization

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3764KB) PP. 513-525
DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.512079    2,357 Downloads   2,738 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Understanding cell behavior inside three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments with controlled spatial patterning of physical and biochemical factors could provide insight into the basic biology of tissue engraftment, vascular anastomosis, and revascularization. A simple layer by layer projection microstereolithography (PμSL) method was utilized to investigate the effects of a nonporous and porous bioinert barrier on myocutaneous flap engraftment and revascularization. A cranial-based, peninsular-shaped myocutaneous flap was surgically created on the dorsum of C57Bl6 mice. Porous (SP) and nonporous (S) silicone implants were tailored to precise flap dimensions and inserted between the flap and recipient bed prior to sutured wound closure. Porous implant myocutaneous flaps became engrafted to the recipient site with complete viability. In contrast, distal cutaneous necrosis and resultant flap dehiscence was evident by day 10 in nonporous implant flap mice. Laser speckle contrast imaging demonstrated flap revascularization in (SP) mice, and markedly reduced distal flap reperfusion in (S) mice. Histologic analysis of day 10 (SP) flaps revealed granulation tissue rich in blood vessels and macrophages growing through the implant pores and robust neovascularization of the distal flap. In contrast, the nonporous implant prevented tissue communication between recipient bed and flap with lack of bridging inflammatory cells and neovasculature and resultant distal tissue necrosis. We have fabricated porous and nonporous silicone implants via a simple and inexpensive technique of PμSL. Using a graded-ischemia wound healing model, we have shown that porous implants allowed contact between flap and recipient bed resulting in proximal flap arteriogenesis and neovascularization of the distal flap. Future research will utilize variations in implant pore size, spacing, and location to gain a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for myocutaneous flap engraftment, vascular anastomosis, and revascularization.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Clark, R. , Cicotte, K. , McGuire, P. , Hedberg-Dirk, E. and Howdieshell, T. (2014) The Effect of Projection Microstereolithographic Fabricated Implant Geometry on Myocutaneous Revascularization. Surgical Science, 5, 513-525. doi: 10.4236/ss.2014.512079.

References

[1] Isner, J.M. (2000) Tissue Responses to Ischemia: Local and Remote Responses for Preserving Perfusion of Ischemic Muscle. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106, 615-625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI10961
[2] Carmeliet, P. (2003) Angiogenesis in Health and Disease. Nature Medicine, 9, 653-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0603-653
[3] Adams, R.H. and Alitalo, K. (2007) Molecular Regulation of Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 8, 464-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrm2183
[4] Van Royen, N., Piek, J.J., Schaper, W., et al. (2010) A Critical Review of Clinical Arteriogenesis Research. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55, 19-35.
[5] Walker, A. and Gerhardt, H. (2011) Endothelial Development Taking Shape. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 23, 676-685.
[6] Schechner, J.S., Crane, S.K. and Wang, F. (2003) Engraftment of Humanized Skin Equivalents. The FASEB Journal, 17, 2250-2261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0257com
[7] Phng, L.K., Stanchi, F. and Gerhardt, H. (2013) Filopodia Are Dispensable for Endothelial Tip Cell Guidance. Development, 140, 4031-4040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.097352
[8] Muskin, J. and Ragusa, M. (2010) Three-Dimensional Printing Using a Photoinitiated Polymer. Journal of Chemical Education, 87, 512-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed800170t
[9] Miller, J.S., Stevens, K.R., Yang, M.T., et al. (2012) Rapid Casting of Patterned Vascular Networks for Perfusable Engineered Three-Dimensional Tissues. Nature Materials, 11, 768-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat3357
[10] McGuire, P.G. and Howdieshell, T.R. (2010) The Importance of Engraftment in Flap Revascularization: Confirmation by Laser Speckle Perfusion Imaging. Journal of Surgical Research, 164, e201-e212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.07.059
[11] Gopinath, D., Kumar, M.S. and Selvaraj, D. (2005) Pexiganan-Incorporated Collagen Matrices for Infected Wound Healing Processes in Rat. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 73, 3320-3330.
[12] Leahy, M.J., Enfield, J.G. and Clancy, N.T. (2007) Biphotonic Methods in Microcirculation Imaging. Medical Laser Application, 22, 105-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mla.2007.06.003
[13] Howdieshell, T.R., McGuire, L., Maestas, J., et al. (2011) Pattern Recognition Receptor Gene Expression in Ischemia-Induced Flap Revascularization. Surgery, 150, 418-428.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2011.06.037
[14] Khan, B., Rangasamy, S., McGuire, P.G. and Howdieshell, T.R. (2013) The Role of Monocyte Subsets in Myocutaneous Revascularization. Journal of Surgical Research, 183, 963-975.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2013.02.019
[15] Taylor, P.R., Martinez-Pomares, L. and Stacey, M. (2005) Macrophage Receptors and Immune Recognition. Annual Review of Immunology, 23, 901-923.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.23.021704.115816
[16] Jain, R.K., Au, P., Tan, J., et al. (2005) Engineering Vascularized Tissue. Nature Biotechnology, 23, 821-833. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0705-821
[17] Heil, M., Eittenmuller, I., Schmitz-Rixen, T., et al. (2006) Arteriogenesis versus Angiogenesis: Similarities and Differences. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 10, 45-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2006.tb00290.x
[18] Udan, R.S., Vadakkan, T.J. and Dickinson, M.E. (2013) Dynamic Responses of Endothelial Cells to Changes in Blood Flow during Vascular Remodeling of the Mouse Yolk Sac. Development, 140, 4041-4050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.096255
[19] Schaper, W. and Scholz, D. (2003) Factors Regulating Arteriogenesis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 23, 1143-1155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000069625.11230.96
[20] Schaper, W. (2009) Collateral Circulation: Past and Present. Basic Research in Cardiology, 104, 5-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-008-0760-x
[21] Garcia-Cardena, G., Comander, J., Anderson, K.R., et al. (2001) Biomechanical Activation of Vascular Endothelium as a Determinant of its Functional Phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 4478-4485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.071052598
[22] Stefater, J.A., Rao, S., Bezold, K., et al. (2013) Macrophage Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 Signaling Regulates Mouse Wound Angiogenesis and Repair. Blood, 121, 2574-2578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-06-434621
[23] Fantin, A., Viera, J.M. and Gestri, G. (2010) Tissue Macrophages Act as Chaperones for Vascular Anastomosis Down-stream of VEGF-Mediated Endothelial Tip Cell Induction. Blood, 116, 829-840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-12-257832

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.