Share This Article:

Three Generations of Particles Are Necessary for Our Universe as Well as the Next Level of Matter

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2811KB) PP. 1963-1973
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.517191    4,648 Downloads   5,008 Views   Citations


Important problems of physics and cosmology may be decided if quarks, leptons and gauge bosons are composite particles. Dark matter from familons, existence of three generations of particles, existence of distinguished scales in the Universe, and fractal distribution of baryon structures are natural phenomenon in the preon model of elementary particles. The origin of the scale hierarchy in the baryon component is clarified because of this component owing to gravitation repeated dark matter structuring. In dark matter phase transitions were on different z.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Burdyuzha, V. (2014) Three Generations of Particles Are Necessary for Our Universe as Well as the Next Level of Matter. Journal of Modern Physics, 5, 1963-1973. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2014.517191.


[1] Burdyuzha, V. (2010) Physics-Uspekhi, 180, 439-444.
[2] Bergstrom, L. (2012) Annals of Physics, 524, 479-496.
[3] Freese, K., Lisanti, M. and Savage, Ch. (2012) Astrophysics, 37 p.
[4] Burdyuzha, V. (2014) Astronomy Reports, 58, 353-362.
[5] Omont, A., et al. (1996) Nature, 382, 428-431.
[6] Pati, J.C. and Salam, A. (1974) Physical Review D, 10, 275.
[7] Terezava, H. (1980) Physical Review D, 22, 184.
[8] Adloff, C., et al. (1997) Zeitschrift fur Physik C Particles and Fields, 74, 191-205.
[9] Breitweg, J. (1997) Zeitschrift fur Physik C Particles and Fields, 74, 207-220.
[10] Kofman, L., Linde, A. and Starobinskiy, A. (1997) High Energy Physics-Phenomenology, 41 p.
[11] Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Abdel Khalek, S., Abdelalim, A., Abdesselam, A., Abdinov, O., Abi, B., Abolins, M., Abou Zeid, O., Abramowicz, H., Abreu, H., Acerbi, E., Acharya, B., Adamczyk, L., Adams, D., Addy, T., Adelman, J., Aderholz, M., et al., ATLAS Collaboration (2012) Physics Letters B, 710, 49-66.
[12] Chatrchyan, S., Khachatryan, V., Sirunyan, A., Tumasyan, A., Adam, W., Bergauer, T., Dragicevic, M., Fabjan, C., Friedl, M., Ghete, V., Hammer, J., Hoch, M., Hormann, N., Hrubec, J., Jeitler, M., Kiesenhofer, W., Krammer, M., et al., CMS Collaboration (2012) Physics Letters B, 710, 26-48.
[13] Lincoln, D. (2013) Scientific American, 1, 17.
[14] Shupe, M. (1979) Physics Letters B, 86, 87-92.
[15] Harari, H. (1979) Physics Letters B, 86, 83-86.
[16] Evnin, O. (1997) arXiv:hep-th/9711433.
[17] Burdyuzha, V., Lalakulich, O., Ponomarev, Yu. and Vereshkov, G. (2004) Astronomical & Astrophysical Transactions, 23, 453-461.
[18] Groom, D., Aguilar-Benitez, M., Amsler, C., Barnett, R., Burchat, P., Carone, C., Caso, C., Conforto, G., Dahl, O., Doser, M., Eidelman, S., Feng, J., et al. (2000) European Physical Journal, C15, 1.
[19] Berezhiani, Z., Sakharov, A. and Khlopov, M. (1992) Nuclear Physics, 55, 1918.
[20] Vereshkov, G. and Burdyuzha, V. (1995) International Journal of Modern Physics A, 10, 1343.
[21] Bayatian, G., Kumar A., Beri, S., Kohli, J., et al., CMS Collaboration (2007) Journal of Physics G, 43, 995.
[22] Petraki, K. and Volkas, R. (2013) International Journal of Modern Physics, A28.
[23] Baryshev, Yu. (2008) Practical Cosmology. In: Baryshev, Yu., Taganov, I. and Teerikorpi, P., Eds., International Conference “Problems of Practical Cosmology”, St.-Petersburg, 23-27 June 2008.
[24] Sheykhi, A., Teimoori, Z. and Wang, B. (2013) Physics Letters B, 718, 1203-1207.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.