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Pernicious Anemia Associated Autoimmune Diseases in a Sub Saharian African Internal Medicine Service

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DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2014.43009    3,049 Downloads   3,705 Views  

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease. It is characterized by the presence of an autoimmune atrophic gastritis and various autoantibodies that lead to a vitamin B12 deficiency responsible for a macrocytic anemia. It is frequently associated with other specific or non-organ- specific autoimmune diseases. We report six patients with pernicious anemia associated with other autoimmune diseases. Patients and Results: There were six patients (4 females/2 males), mean age of 39.67 years. In all cases it was found macrocytic anemia. The average Hb was 6.08 g/dl and the average MGV: 110.67 fl. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in all patients. Megaloblastosis compatible with a lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid was constant. Determination of serum vitamin B12 was low in all cases while folic acid levels were within standards. Immuno- logically it was found in all patients, a positivity of anti-intrinsic factor antibody and/or anti- parietal cells antibody at rates up to 67 times over normal ranges. Pernicious anemia was associated with autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in 4 patients. It was two cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis at hypothyroidic phase (high TSHus, thyréoperoxydase anti-antibody positive (over 10 N) in both cases and Graves’ disease in the two other cases. Pernicious anemia was associated with a syndrome of primary antiphospholipid antibody in a case. Furthermore pernicious anemia was found in a patient autoimmune type 1 diabetes with strongly positive anti -GAD antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis by retaining it in the diagnosis of multiple autoimmune syndrome. Conclusion: These cases illustrate the existence of the association of pernicious anemia with other autoimmune diseases in our context. This should encourage practitioners to seek hided autoimmune diseases when they consider the diagnosis of pernicious anemia.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Pouye, A. , Fall Dieng, S. , Abdoukarim Oumar, D. , Samba Diago N’Diaye, F. , Diagne Sakho, N. , Faye, A. and N’Dongo, S. (2014) Pernicious Anemia Associated Autoimmune Diseases in a Sub Saharian African Internal Medicine Service. Open Journal of Internal Medicine, 4, 59-63. doi: 10.4236/ojim.2014.43009.

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