Share This Article:

Mineral Chemistry and Magmatic Differentiation Evidences in the Neshveh Intrusion (NW Saveh, Central Iran)

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:5755KB) PP. 262-288
DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.46020    4,265 Downloads   5,521 Views   Citations


Neshveh intrusion which is located in the NW of Saveh City is a part of Sahand-Bazman magmatic arc within the Central Iranian zone. This intrusion consists of quartz-monzogabbro, quartz-monzodiorite, granodiorite and granite that have intruded into the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. This intrusion is medium to high-K calc alkaline, metaluminous, and I-type granitoid. All phases of the Neshveh granitoid are characterized by LREE-rich patterns with high LREE/HREE ratio and negative Eu anomalies. Similarity of patterns suggests a comagmatic source for these rocks and demonstrates the role of magmatic differentiation in their evolution. Clinopyroxene classified as calcic type with varying from clinoenstatite-clinofferosillite to diopside and augite from quartz-monzogabbros to quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite. Plagioclase composition varies from bytownite and labradorite in quartz-monzogabbros to andesine in quartz-monzodiorites and oligoclase in granodiorites and granites. Core of some plagioclases in granodiorites and granites shows the calcic composition which is labradorite and andesine in granodiorite and andesine in granites. Field investigations along with petrographic and geochemical studies indicate that all phases of the Neshveh intrusion derived from a common magma source as a result of mineral differentiation. Geochemical evidences show smooth differentiation trends in which most of major elements (except Al2O3, K2O and Na2O) are negatively correlated with SiO2 and K2O, Ba, Rb, Ce, Nb, and Zr are positively correlated with SiO2. Some elements such as Na2O, Sr, Eu and Y follow curves that reflect crystal fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioc1ase and hornblende. Furthermore, large volumes of quartz-monzogabbros compared to granites, as well as the lack of mafic enclaves in more evolved rocks, are also indicative of crystal fractionation. Clinopyroxene fractionation was the main control in the evolution of the magmas up to 55 wt% SiO2. Hornblende took over from 55 wt% SiO2, resulting in decreasing Dy/Yb with increasing silica content in the most siliceous rocks. Fractionation of opaque minerals and apatite throughout the sequence, and the continuous increase in K2O and Ba vs. SiO2 reflect the absence of significant fractionation of biotite and K-feldspar.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Keshavarzi, R. , Esmaili, D. , Kahkhaei, M. , Mokhtari, M. and Kordlou, M. (2014) Mineral Chemistry and Magmatic Differentiation Evidences in the Neshveh Intrusion (NW Saveh, Central Iran). Open Journal of Geology, 4, 262-288. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2014.46020.


[1] Dercourt, J., Zonenshain, L.P., Ricou, L.E., Kazmin, V.G., Pichon, X.L., Knipper, A.L., Grandjacquet, C., Sbortshikov, I.M., Geyssant, J., Lepvrier, C., Pechersky, D.H., Boulin, J., Sibuet, J.C., Savostin, L.A., Sorokhtin, O., Westphal, M., Bazhenov, M.L., Lauer, J.P. and Biju-Duval, B. (1986) Geological Evolution of the Tethys Belt from the Atlantic to the Pamirs Since the LIAS. Tectonophysics, 123, 241-315.
[2] Ricou, L.E., Braud, J. and Brunn, J.H. (1977) Le Zagros. Socie’te Geologique de France. Me’moires, 8, 33-52.
[3] Agard, P., Jolivet, L., Vrielynck, B., Burov, E. and Monié, P. (2007) Plate Acceleration: The Obduction Trigger? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 258, 428-441.
[4] McQuarrie, N., Stock, J.M., Verdel, C. and Wernicke, B.P. (2003) Cenozoic Evolution of Neotethys and Implications for the Causes of Plate Motions. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 20-36.
[5] Talebian, M. and Jackson, J. (2004) A Reappraisal of Earthquake Local Mechanisms and Active Shortening in the Zagros Mountain of Iran. Geophysical Journal International, 156, 506-526.
[6] Vernant, P., Nilforoushan, F., Hatzfeld, D., Abbassi, M.R, Vigny, C., Masson, F., Nankali, H., Martinod, J., Ashtiani, A., Bayer, R., Tavakoli, F. and Chery, J. (2004) Present-Day Crustal Deformation and Plate Kinematics in the Middle East Constrained by GPS Measurements in Iran and Northern Oman. Geophysical Journal International, 157, 381-398.
[7] Molinaro, M., Guezou, J.C., Leturmy, P., Eshraghi, S.A. and de Lamotte, D.F. (2004) The Origin of Changes in Structural Style across the Bandar Abbas Syntaxis, SE Zagros (Iran). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21, 735-752.
[8] Molinaro, M., Zeyen, H. and Laurencin, X. (2005) Lithospheric Structure beneath the South-Eastern Zagros Mountains, Iran: Recent Slab Break-Off? Terra Nova, 17, 1-6.
[9] Meyer, B., Mouthereau, F., Lacombe, O. and Agard, P. (2005) Evidence for Quaternary Activity along the Dehshir Fault: Implication. Geophysical Journal International, 163, 1-10.
[10] Hassanzadeh, J. (1993) Metallogenic and Tectonomagmatic Events in the SE Sector of the Cenozoic Active Continental Margin of Central Iran. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 204 p.
[11] Torabi, G. (2009) Subduction-Related Eocene Shoshonites from the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (Qaleh-Khargooshi Area, Western Yazd Province, Iran). Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 1-34.
[12] Caillat, C., Dehlavi, P. and Martel, J.B. (1978) Geologie de la region de Saveh (Iran). Contribution a l’etude du volcanism et du plutonism tertiaresde la zone de I Irancentral. Ph.D. Thesis, Grenoble, 325 p.
[13] Helmi, F. (1991) Petrology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks in Niousht Area (NE Saveh). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tehran, Tehran. (in Persian)
[14] Panahi, A., Keshavarzi, R., Kiani, M., Taheri, M. and Javadian, B. (2013) Petrography and Petrogenesis of the Neshveh Intrusive Rocks, Northeast Saveh, Central Iran. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies (Special Issue on Applied Sciences), 3, 22-37.
[15] Keshavarzi, R., Esmaili, D., Kahkhaie, M.R., Jabari, R. and Mokhtari, M.A.A. (2014) Petrology, Geochemistry and Tectonomagmatic Setting of Neshveh Intrusion (NW Saveh). Open Journal of Geology, 4, 177-189.
[16] Aghanabati, S.A. (2004) Geology of Iran. Geological Survey of Iran. 606 p. (in Persian)
[17] Galamgash, J. and Fonudi, M. (1998) Explanatory Text of Saveh. Geological Map 1:100000, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran.
[18] Davarpanah, A. (2009) Magmatic Evolution of Eocene Volcanic Rocks of the Bijgerd-Kuh-e-Kharchin Area, OrumiehDokhtar Zone, Iran. M.Sc. Thesis, Georgia State University, Atlanta.
[19] Middlemost, E.A.K. (1985) Magmas and Magmatic Rocks. An Introduction to Igneous Petrology. Longman Group Ltd., London, New York, 266 p.
[20] Kretz, R. (1983) Symbols for Rock-Forming Minerals. American Mineralogist, 68, 277-279.
[21] Morimoto, N. (1988) Nomenclature of Pyroxenes: Subcommittee on Pyroxenes, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names, International Mineralogical Association. American Mineralogist, 73, 1123-1133.
[22] Leake, B.E. (1997) Nomenclature of Amphiboles: Report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Mineralogical Magazine, 61, 295-321.
[23] Rickwood, P.C. (1989) Boundary Lines within Petrologic Diagrams Which Use Oxides of Major and Minor Elements. Lithos, 22, 247-263.
[24] Chappell, B.W. and White, A.J.R. (1992) I-and S-Type Granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 83, 1-26.
[25] Chappell, B.W. and White, A.J.R. (2001) Two Contrasting Granite Types. 25 Years Later. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 489-499.
[26] Chappell, B.W. and White, A.J.R. (1983) Granitoid Types and Their Distribution in the Lachlan Fold Belt, Southeastern Australia. Geological Society of America Memoirs, 159, 21-37.
[27] Wilson, M. (2007) Igneous Petrogenesis. Chapman and Hall, London, 411 p.
[28] Boynton, W.V. (1984) Cosmochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements: Meteorite Studies. In: Henderson, P., Eds., Rare Earth Element Geochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 63-114.
[29] Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F. (1989) Chemical and Isotopic Systematics of Oceanic Basalts: Implications for Mantle Composition and Processes. In: Saunders, A.D. and Norry, M.J., Eds., Magmatism in the Ocean Basins, in: Geological Society Special Publication, Vol. 42, 313-345.
[30] Schmidt, A., Weyer, S. and Brey, G.P. (2006) BSE Reservoirs: Insights from Nb/Ta of Rutile-Bearing Eclogites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, A562
[31] Glenn, A.G. (2004) The Influence of Melt Structure on Trace Element Partitioning Near the Peridotite Solidus. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 147, 511-527.
[32] Sajona, F.G., Maury, R.C., Bellon, H., Cotton, J. and Defant, M. (1996) High Field Strength Elements of Pliocene— Pleistocene Island Arc Basalts Zamboanga Peninsula, Western Mindanao (Philippines). Journal of Petrology, 37, 693726.
[33] Chappell, B.W. (1999) Aluminium Saturation in I and S-Type Granites and the Characterization of Fractionated Haplogranites. Lithos, 46, 535-551.
[34] Kamber, B.S., Ewart, A., Collerson, K.D., Bruce, M.C. and McDonald, G.D. (2002) Fluid-Mobile Trace Element Constraints on the Role of Slab Melting and Implications for Archean Crustal Growth Models. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 144, 38-56.
[35] Atherton, M.P. and Ghani, A.A. (2002) Slab Breakoff: A Model for Caledonian, Late Granite Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Orthotectonic (Metamorphic) Zone of Scotland and Donegal, Ireland. Lithos, 62, 65-85.
[36] Keshavarzi, R. (2009) Petrography and Petrology of Neshveh Granitoid (Northwest Saveh). Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis in Petrology, University of Tehran, Tehran. (in Persian)
[37] Eichelberger, J.C. (1980) Vesiculation of Mafic Magma during Replenishment of Silicic Magma Reservoirs. Nature, 288, 446-450.
[38] Hildreth, W. (1981) Gradients in Silicic Magma Chambers: Implications for Lithospheric Magmatism. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 86, 10153-10192.
[39] Furlong, K.P. and Fountain, D.M. (1986) Continental Crustal Underplating: Thermal Considerations and Seismic-Petrologic Consequences. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 91, 8285-8294.
[40] Arndt, N.T. and Goldstein, S.L. (1989) An Open Boundary between Lower Continental Crust and Mantle: Its Role in Crust Formation and Crustal Recycling. Tectonophysics, 161, 201-212.
[41] Bergantz, G.W. (1989) Underplating and Partial Melting: Implications for Melt Generation and Extraction. Science, 245, 1093-1095.
[42] Chappell, B.W., White, A.J.R. and Wyborn, D. (1987) The Importance of Residual Source Material (Restite) in Granite Petrogenesis. Journal of Petrology, 28, 1111-1138.
[43] Roberts, M.P. and Clemens, J.D. (1995) Feasibility of AFC Models for the Petrogenesis of Calc-Alkaline Magma Series. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 121, 139-147.
[44] Sha, L.K. and Chappell, B.W. (1999) Apatite Chemical Composition, Determined by Electron Microprobe and LaserAblation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, as a Probe into Granite Petrogenesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 3861-3881.
[45] Broska, I., Williams, C.T., Uher, P., Kone?ny, P. and Leichmann, J. (2004) The Geochemistry of Phosphorus in Different Granite Suites of the Western Carpathians, Slovakia: The Role of Apatite and P-Bearing Feldspar. Chemical Geology, 205, 1-15.
[46] Popov, V.S., Tevelev, A.A. and Bogatov, V.I. (1999) The Stepninsk Pluton on the South Urals: Relationships of Plutonic Rocks Coming from Mantle and Crustal Sources. Izvestiya Vuzov Geologiya i Razvedka Jurnal, 5, 52-68.
[47] Bea, F., Fershtater, G.B., Montero, P., Smirnov, V.N. and Molina, J.F. (2005) Deformation-Driven Differentiation of Granitic Magma: The Stepninsk Pluton of the Uralides, Russia. Lithos, 81, 209-233.
[48] DePaolo, D.J. (1981) Trace Element and Isotopic Effects of Combined Wall Rock Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 53, 189-202.
[49] Spera, F.J. and Bohrson, W.A. (2001) Energy-Constrained Open System Magmatic Processes I: General Model and Energy-Constrained Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (EC-AFC) Formulation. Journal of Petrology, 42, 999-1018.
[50] Thompson, A.B., Matile, L. and Ulmer, P. (2002) Some Thermal Constraints on Crustal Assimilation during Fractionation of Hydrous, Mantle-Derived Magmas with Examples from Central Alpine Batholiths. Journal of Petrology, 43, 403-422.
[51] Kuritani, T., Kitagawa, H. and Nakamura, E. (2005) Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization Controlled by Transport Process of Crustal Melt: Implications from an Alkali Basalt-Dacite Suite from Rishiri Volcano, Japan. Journal of Petrology, 46, 1421-1442.
[52] Chappell, B.W. (1996) Magma Mixing and the Production of Compositional Variation within Granite Suites: Evidence from the Granites of Southeastern Australia. Journal of Petrology, 37, 449-470.
[53] Cocherie, A. (1986) Systematic Use of Trace Element Distribution on Patterns in Log-Log Diagrams. Geochimica et Cosmoshimica Acta, 50, 2517-2522.
[54] Klimm, K., Holtz, F. and King, P.L. (2008) Fractionation vs. Magma Mixing in the Wangrah Suite A-Type Granites. Lachlan Fold Belt. Australia: Experimental Constraints. Lithos, 102, 415-434.
[55] Green, D.H. (1980) Island Arc and Continent-Building Magmatism—A Review of Petrogenic Models Based on Experimental Petrology and Geochemistry. Tectonophysics, 63, 367-385.
[56] Winter, J.D. (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[57] Davidson. J., Turner, S., Handley, H., Macpherson, C. and Dosseto, A. (2007) Amphibole “Sponge” in Arc Crust? Geology, 35, 787-790.
[58] Rollinson, H.R. (1993) Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation and Interpretation. Longman, Harlow, 352 p.
[59] Wyborn, D., Chappell, B.W. and James, M. (2001) Examples of Convective Fractionation in High Temperature Granites from the Lachlan Fold Belt. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 531-541.
[60] Blundy, J. and Wood, B. (2003) Partitioning of Trace Elements between Crystals and Melts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 210, 383-397.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.