Share This Article:

Analyses of Physical Data to Evaluate the Potential to Identify Class I Injection Well Fluid Migration Risk

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1237KB) PP. 551-565
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.56057    2,717 Downloads   3,190 Views  

ABSTRACT

Injection wells have been used for disposal of fluids for nearly 100 years. Design of injection well systems has advanced over the years, but environmental concerns due to the potential for migration of injected fluids remain. Fluids range from hazardous materials, to mining waste to treated wastewater. This paper presents an evaluation of wells injecting treated wastewater to assess which create the greatest risk to migration potential. Prior studies have looked at the risks of Class I injection wells for wastewater disposal, but limited data were available at that time. This research involved collecting data and evaluating the differences as a means to predict the potential for fluid migration in the wells. There were four issues that might portend migration: well depth-shallower wells tended to have more migration; the tightness of the confining unit immediately above the injection zone; well age; and the use of tubing and packers. Florida is moving away from tubing and packer wells which may be an indicative of this issue. The results provide a pathway to investigate injection wells in other states.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Bloetscher, F. (2014) Analyses of Physical Data to Evaluate the Potential to Identify Class I Injection Well Fluid Migration Risk. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 551-565. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.56057.

References

[1] 40 CFR 144.3. 2007, Title 40—Protection of Environment, Chapter I—Environmental Protection Agency, Part 144—Underground Injection Control Program, Code of Federal Regulations. GPO, Washington DC, 1 July 2007.
[2] 40 CFR 146.16. 2007. Title 40—Protection of Environment, Chapter I—Environmental Protection Agency, Part 146—Underground Injection Control Program: Criteria and Standards, Subpart B—Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class I Wells, Sec. 146.16 Requirements for New Class I Municipal Wells in Certain Parts of Florida. GPO, Washington DC, 1 July 2007.
[3] USEPA 2001, Office of Water 4601 Washington DC, Class I Underground Injection Control Program: Study of the Risks Associated with Class I Underground Injection Wells, EPA 816-R-01-007.
[4] GWPC (2007) Injection Wells: An Introduction to Their Use Operation and Regulation, GWPC, Oklahoma City, OK. accessed 5/14/2014 at
http://www.gwpc.org/sites/default/files/UIC%
20Brochure%20Updated%209-2013_0.pdf
[5] 40 CFR 145. 2013, Title 40—State UIC Program Requirements, Code of Federal Regulations. GPO, Washington DC, 1 July 2013.
[6] 40 CFR 147. 2013, Title 40—Protection of Environment, Chapter I—Environmental Protection Agency, PState, Tribal and EPA-Administered Underground Injection Control Program, Code of Federal Regulations. GPO, Washington DC, 1 July 2013.
[7] Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) (2013) Injection Wells: An Introduction to Their Use, Operation, and Regulation, Underground Injection Practices Council—USEPA, August 2013.
[8] USEPA. http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/navajo-nation/pdf/
stakeholders/UraniumPermits-DaveBasinger-USEPA.pdf
[9] Van Voorhees, R.F., Clark, J.E. and Bonura, D.K. (2008) Overview of Injection Well History in the United States of America. GWPC Annual Forum Proceedings, GWPC, Oklahoma City.
[10] RVO (2012) Deep Injection Well Fact Sheet. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Remediation Venture Office (RVO).
[11] Evans, D.M. (1966) The Denver Area Earthquakes and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Disposal Well. The Mountain Geologist, 3, 23-26.
[12] Rish, W.A., Ijaz, T. and Long, T.F. (1998) Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells. Draft.
[13] Vernon, R.O. (1970) The Beneficial Uses of Zones of High Transmissivities in the Florida Subsurface for Water Storage and Waste Disposal, Florida Bureau of Geology Information, Circular 70, 39.
[14] Meyer, F. (1989) Hydrogeology, Ground-Water Movement, and Subsurface Storage in the Floridan Aquifer System in Southern Florida, Regional Aquifer-System Analysis-Floridan Aquifer System, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-G, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[15] Pitt, W. (1996) Deep Well Injection in Florida. Florida Water Resources Journal, 9, 21-39.
[16] Meyer, F.W. (1974) Evaluation of Hydraulic Characteristics of a Deep Artesian Aquifer from Natural Water-Level Fluctuations, Miami, Florida. Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigations 75, 32.
[17] Keith, D.W., Giardina, J.A., Morgan, M.G. and Wilson, E.J. (2005) Regulating the Underground Injection of CO2. Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 499A-505A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0534203
[18] Bloetscher, F., Englehardt, J.D., Chin, D.A., Rose, J.B., Tchobanoglous, G., Amy, V.P. and Gokgoz, S. (2005) Comparative Assessment of Municipal Wastewater Disposal Methods in Southeast Florida. Water Environment Research, 77, 480-490.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143005X67395
[19] Englehardt, J.D., Amy, V.P., Bloetscher, F., Chin, D.A., Fleming, L.E., Gokgoz, S., Solo-Gabriele, H., Rose, J.B. and Tchobanoglous, G. (2001) Comparative Assessment of Human and Ecological Impacts for Municipal Wastewater Disposal Methods in Southeast Florida: Deep Wells, Ocean Outfalls, and Canal Discharges, University of Miami, Coral Gables.
[20] Spearman, C. (1904) The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Rings. The American Journal of Psychology, 15, 72-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1412159
[21] Pleitez, F. (2012) Predicting Removal Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Membranes with Respect to Emerging Substances of Concern Using A Discriminant Function Analysis, Thesis, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
[22] IOS (2012) Creating a Cree Plot. Improved Outcomes Software.
http://www.improvedoutcomes.com/docs/
WebSiteDocs/PCA/Creating_a_Scree_Plot.htm
[23] Fernandez, G. (2010) Statistical Data Mining Using SAS Applications. CRC, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.
[24] XLStat (2012) Running a Discriminant Analysis with XLSTAT.
http://www.xlstat.com/en/learning-center/tutorials/
running-a-discriminant-analysis-with-xlstat.html

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.