Share This Article:

Potential of AM Fungi in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals and Effect on Yield of Wheat Crop

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:338KB) PP. 1578-1586
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511171    4,888 Downloads   6,142 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT


A pot experiment was conducted to determine the potential of AM fungi in phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on yield of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted in CR Design with four replications during rabi 2012-13. Data showed no increase in grain and shoot yields by AMF inoculation with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at different levels but increased root yield, plant height, spike length and hundred grains weight of wheat as compared with uninoculated crop. Post-harvest soil Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn contents of 2, 4.4, 2.8 and 2.9 mg·kg-1, respectively were maximum in uninoculated plants treated with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at triple of recommended level. No increases in plant P, N, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn uptakes were observed by the inoculation of AMF when compared with uninoculated crop. Maximum plant Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn uptakes of 160.5, 206, 1914.6 and 2653 g·ha-1, respectively were recorded in uninoculated plants applied with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at triple of recommended levels. Wheat roots infection intensity by AMF increased with higher AMF soil spores density. Results suggest the potential of phytoremediation of contaminated soil to be improved by the inoculation of crops with AMF.


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Khan, A. , Sharif, M. , Ali, A. , Shah, S. , Mian, I. , Wahid, F. , Jan, B. , Adnan, M. , Nawaz, S. and Ali, N. (2014) Potential of AM Fungi in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals and Effect on Yield of Wheat Crop. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1578-1586. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511171.

References

[1] Marschner, H. and Römheld, V. (1994) Strategies of Plants for Acquisition of Iron. Plant and Soil, 165, 261-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00008069
[2] Barea, J.M. and Jeffries, P. (1995) Arbuscular mycorrhizas in Sustainable Soil-Plant Systems. In: Varma, A. and Hock, B., Eds., Mycorrhiza, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 521-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-08897-5_23
[3] Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
[4] Barea, J.M., Azcón-Aguilar, C. and Azcon, R. (1997) Interactions between Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizosphere Microorganisms within the Context of Sustainable Soil-Plant Systems. In: Gange, A.C. and Brown, V.K., Eds., Multitrophic Inter-Actions in Terrestrial Systems, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, 65-77.
[5] Vogel-Mikus, K., Drobne, D. and Regvar, M. (2005) Zn, Cd and Pb Accumulation and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonisation of Pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the Vicinity of a Lead Mine and Smelter in Slovenia. Environmental Pollution, 133, 233-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.06.021
[6] Weissenhorn, I., Leyval, C., Belgy, G. and Berthelin, J. (1995) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Contribution to Heavy Metal Uptake by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Pot Culture with Contaminated Soil. Mycorrhiza, 5, 245-251.
[7] Li, X.L., George, E. and Marschner, H. (1991) Extension of the Phosphorus Depletion Zone in VA-Mycorrhizal White Clover in a Calcareous Soil. Plant and Soil, 136, 41-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02465218
[8] Yao, Q., Li, X., Ai, W. and Christie, P. (2003) Bi-Directional Transfer of Phosphorus between Red Clover and Perennial Ryegrass via Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Hyphal links. European Journal of Soil Biology, 39, 47-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1164-5563(02)00008-0
[9] Steinberg, P.D. and Rillig, M.C. (2003) Differential Decomposition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae and Glomalin. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 191-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00249-3
[10] Dehn, B. and Schüepp, H. (1990) Influence of VA Mycorrhizae on the Uptake and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Plants. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 29, 79-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(90)90258-F
[11] Zak, J.C. and Parkinson, D. (1982) Initial Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development of Slender Wheatgrass on Two Amended Mine Spoils. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60, 2241-2248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b82-275
[12] Javaid, A. (2011) Importance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils. In: Khan, M.S., Ed., Biomanagement of Metal-Contaminated Soils, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 125-141.
[13] Koehler, F.E., Moudre, C.D. and McNeal, B.L. (1984) Laboratory Manual for Soil Fertility. Washington State University, Pulman.
[14] Mclean, E.O. (1982) Soil pH and Lime Requirement. In: Page, A.L., Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 199-224.
[15] Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982) Nitrogen—Total. In: Page, A.L., Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 595-624.
[16] Soltanpour, P.N. and Schwab, A.P. (1977) A New Soil Test for Simultaneous Extraction of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients in Alkaline Soils 1. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis, 8, 195-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103627709366714
[17] Jarrell, W.M. and Beverly, R.B. (1981) The Dilution Effect in Plant Nutrition Studies. In: Brady, N.C., Ed., Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, Waltham, 197-224.
[18] Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics, a Biometrical Approach. McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, Ltd., Tokyo.
[19] Gerdemann, J.W. and Nicolson, T.H. (1963) Spores of Mycorrhizal Endogone Species Extracted from Soil by Wet Sieving and Decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 46, 235-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(63)80079-0
[20] Schenck, N.C. and Perez, Y. (1990) Manual for Identification of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. (INVAM). University of Florida, Gainesville.
[21] Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. (1970) Improved Procedures for Clearing Roots and Staining Parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for Rapid Assessment of Infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(63)80079-0
[22] Sharif, M. and Claassen, N. (2011) Action Mechanisms of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phosphorus Uptake by Capsicum annuum L. Pedosphere, 21, 502-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(63)80079-0
[23] Al-Karaki, G.N. and Clark, R.B. (1999) Mycorrhizal Influence on Protein and Lipid of Durum Wheat Grown at Different Soil Phosphorus Levels. Mycorrhiza, 9, 97-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005720050006
[24] Kahiluoto, H., Ketoja, E. and Vestberg, M. (2000) Promotion of Utilization of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza through Reduced P Fertilization 1. Bioassays in a Growth Chamber. Plant and Soil, 227, 191-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026555717663
[25] Rabie, G.H. (2005) Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phytoremediation of Soil Rhizosphere Spiked with Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Mycobiology, 33, 41-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.1.041
[26] Vivas, A., Vörös, A., Biró, B., Barea, J.M., Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. and Azcón, R. (2003) Beneficial Effects of Indigenous Cd-Tolerant and Cd-Sensitive Glomus mosseae Associated with a Cd-Adapted Strain of Brevibacillus sp. in Improving Plant Tolerance to Cd Contamination. Applied Soil Ecology, 24, 177-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(03)00088-X
[27] Rillig, M.C. and Steinberg, P.D. (2002) Glomalin Production by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus: A Mechanism of Habitat Modification? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34, 1371-1374.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00060-3
[28] Liu, A., Hamel, C., Elmi, A., Costa, C., Ma, B. and Smith, D.L. (2002) Concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in Maize Colonized by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi under Field Conditions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 82, 272-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/S01-022
[29] Harley, J.L. and Smith, S.E. (1983) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, Inc., London.
[30] Al-Amri, S.M. (2013) The Functional Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Improving Growth and Tolerance of Vicia faba Plants Grown in Wastewater Contaminated Soil. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7, 4435-4442.
[31] Ross, J.P. and Harper, J.A. (1970) Effect of Endogone mycorrhiza on Soybean Yields. Phytopathology, 60, 1552-1556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-60-1552
[32] Augé, R.M. (2001) Water Relations, Drought and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Mycorrhiza, 11, 3-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005720100097
[33] Guo, Y., George, E. and Marschner, H. (1996) Contribution of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus to the Uptake of Cadmium and Nickel in Bean and Maize Plants. Plant and Soil, 184, 195-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00010449
[34] Voegelin, A., Barmettler, K. and Kretzschmar, R. (2003) Heavy Metal Release from Contaminated Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 865-875.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2003.8650
[35] Joner, E.J. and Leyval, C. (1997) Uptake of 109Cd by Roots and Hyphae of a Glomus mosseae/Trifolium subterraneum Mycorrhiza from Soil Amended with High and Low Concentrations of Cadmium. New Phytologist, 135, 353-360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00633.x
[36] Li, X. and Christie, P. (2001) Changes in Soil Solution Zn and pH and Uptake of Zn by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Red Clover in Zn-Contaminated Soil. Chemosphere, 42, 201-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00126-0
[37] Jamal, A., Ayub, N., Usman, M. and Khan, A.G. (2002) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance Zinc and Nickel Uptake from Contaminated Soil by Soybean and Lentil. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 4, 205-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226510208500083
[38] Tonin, C., Vandenkoornhuyse, P., Joner, E.J., Straczek, J. and Leyval, C. (2001) Assessment of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Viola calaminaria and Effect of These Fungi on Heavy Metal Uptake by Clover. Mycorrhiza, 10, 161-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005720000072
[39] Christie, P., Li, X., and Chen, B. (2004) Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Can Depress Translocation of Zinc to Shoots of Host Plants in Soils Moderately Polluted with Zinc. Plant and Soil, 261, 209-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:PLSO.0000035542.79345.1b
[40] Bafeel, S.O. (2008) Contribution of Mycorrhizae in Phytoremediation of Lead Contaminated Soils by Eucalyptus rostrata Plants. Journal of World Applied Sciences, 5, 490-498.
[41] Zandavalli, R.B., Dillenburg, L.R., and de Souza, P.V.D. (2004) Growth Responses of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) to Inoculation with the Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus clarum. Applied Soil Ecology, 25, 245-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2003.09.009
[42] Heggo, A., Angle, J.S. and Chaney, R.L. (1990) Effects of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Heavy Metal Uptake by Soybeans. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 865-869.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(90)90169-Z
[43] Del Val, C., Barea, J.M. and Azcon-Aguilar, C. (1999) Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Populations in Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 718-723.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.