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Macrophage PD-L1 strikes back: PD-1/PD-L1 interaction drives macrophages toward regulatory subsets

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DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A3003    6,861 Downloads   11,856 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Activated macrophages have been simply de?ned as cells that secrete in?ammatory mediators and kill intracellular pathogens until few years ago. Recent studies have proposed a new classification system to separate activated macrophages based on their functional phenotypes: host defense, wound healing, and immune regulation. Regulatory macrophages can arise following innate or adaptive immune responses and hinder macrophage-mediated host defense and inflammatory functions by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated whether PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction between macrophages and T cells alters macrophage activities. Our data provide evidence for PD-1/PD-L1 engagement inducing a regulatory profile in macrophages. Regulatory macrophages derived from PD-L1 signaling lost their host defense activity, which consists of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the exhibition of increased IL-10, SPHK1 and LIGHT gene levels in early phases of LPS stimulation. This differentiation seems to occur through excessive activation of TLR4 downstream MAPK signaling pathways. Regulatory macrophages induced from PD-1/PD-L1 interaction decrease inflammatory mediators and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, so this macrophage subset has been under considerable attention as a possible immune regulation mechanism. Understanding and modulating regulatory macrophages may lead to new approches to treat or prevent auto-immune diseases such as type I diabetes, rheumatic syndrome and hypersensitivity-related diseases, which are concerned with the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in macroages.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Lee, Y. , Moon, Y. , Hyung, K. , Yoo, J. , Lee, M. , Lee, I. , Go, B. and Hwang, K. (2013) Macrophage PD-L1 strikes back: PD-1/PD-L1 interaction drives macrophages toward regulatory subsets. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 19-29. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A3003.

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