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Distribution, Enrichment and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) after Fertigation with Paper Mill Effluent

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DOI: 10.4236/ojmetal.2013.32A1002    5,517 Downloads   8,999 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum (var. Pusa Early Bunching) after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used for fertigation of T. foenum-graecum along with bore well water (control). The results revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (P < 0.05) effect on EC, pH, OC, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, TKN, PO3-4, SO2-4, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of the soil in both seasons. Insignificant (P > 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of T. foenum-graecum was increased from 5% to 25% concentration and decreased from 50% to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in T. foenum-graecum from 5% to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various heavy metals was in order of Cd > Mn > Cr > Cu > Zn > Fe for soil and Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Zn > Fe for T. foenum-graecum plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of T. foenum-graecum.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

V. Kumar and A. Chopra, "Distribution, Enrichment and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) after Fertigation with Paper Mill Effluent," Open Journal of Metal, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2013, pp. 8-20. doi: 10.4236/ojmetal.2013.32A1002.

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