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Mechanism Underlying Increase of the Serum Magnesium Concentration Observed Following Treatment with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors

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DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2017.74019    599 Downloads   1,061 Views Citations

ABSTRACT

Aim: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study reported that the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-i) suppressed cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with type 2 diabetes; we recently suggested that increase of the serum magnesium (Mg) by SGLT2-i’s can, in part, explain this reduction. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the elevation of the serum Mg level induced by treatment with SGLT2-i’s. Methods: We analyzed the data of 37 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent clinical evaluation and laboratory assessment at baseline and the end of 3 months. To investigate the relationship between the changes in the serum Mg concentrations during 3 months’ treatment (ΔMg) and other variables, we carried out simple linear regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Three months’ treatment with the SGLT2-i resulted in a significant improvement of the body weight (BW), BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and fasting plasma glucose levels. The serum Mg increased significantly. Simple linear regression analysis revealed an association between the ΔMg and the serum triglyceride, serum Mg at baseline, change of the BW (ΔBW), and change of the HbA1c. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between the ΔMg and the serum Mg level at the baseline (r = -0.55, P < 0.001) and the ΔBW (r = -0.34, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study revealed that a lower serum Mg level at the baseline and BW reduction were significantly associated with an increase in the serum Mg following 3 months’ treatment with SGLT2-i’s.

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Sasaki, Y. , Koyano, K. , Iida, S. and Yanagawa, T. (2017) Mechanism Underlying Increase of the Serum Magnesium Concentration Observed Following Treatment with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 7, 241-248. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2017.74019.

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