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Drug Resistance Pattern in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and Risk Factors Associated with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

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DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.52012    1,243 Downloads   2,228 Views Citations

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is a major problem in tuberculosis (TB) control programme, particularly multi-drug resistance TB (MDR-TB) in Nepal. Drug resistance is difficult to treat due to its associated cost and side effects. The objective of this study was to assess the drug resistance pattern and assess risk factor associated with MDR-TB among pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending National Tuberculosis Center. Methodology: The comparative cross sectional study was conducted at National Tuberculosis Center during August 2015 to February 2015. Early morning sputum samples were collected from pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients and subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining and fluorochrome staining and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Drug Susceptibility test was performed on culture positive isolates by using proportion method. Univariate and multivariate analysis was computed to assess the risk factors of MDR-TB. Results: Out of 223 sputum samples, 105 were fluorochrome staining positive, 85 were ZN staining positive and 102 were culture positive. Out of 102 culture positive isolates, 37.2% were resistance to any four anti-TB drugs. 11 (28.9%) were initial drug resistance and 28 (43.7%) were acquired drug resistance. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 11.7%, of which 2 (5.3%) were initial MDR-TB and 10 (15.6%) were acquired MDR-TB. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed female were significantly associated (P = 0.05) with MDR-TB. Conclusion: Drug resistance TB particularly MDR-TB is high. The most common resistance pattern observed in this study was resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin. Female were found to be associated with MDR-TB. Thus, early diagnosis of TB and provision of culture and DST are crucial in order to combat the threat of DR-TB.

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Maharjan, S. , Singh, A. , Khadka, D. and Aryal, M. (2017) Drug Resistance Pattern in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and Risk Factors Associated with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 5, 106-117. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2017.52012.

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