Share This Article:

Estimation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in the Water Column of the Bronx River, New York

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:566KB) PP. 316-323
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.34040    2,987 Downloads   5,462 Views   Citations


Phosphorus (P) is a primary limiting nutrient in rivers and streams, and excessive P results in eutrophication of freshwater systems, in turn, excessive algal growth/toxic algal blooms, oxygen depletion, and water quality degradation. This study analyzed P pool, and hydrolysis of organic P (OP) by native phosphatases (NPase) in the water samples collected in the Bronx River. The soluble reactive P (SRP) of most of the sites’ water collected in 2006 and 2007 were higher (average 67 μg?L–1 and 68 μg?L–1, respectively) than the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) standard of 15 μg?L–1. The SRP% (SRP/TP%) average was 27% in 2006, much lower than in 2007 of SRP% average 83%. The OP% (OP/TP%) average was 73% in 2006, which was much higher than the OP% in 2007 (which was only 17%). The SRP concentrations and distributions (%), and the total P (TP) concentrations were in substantial amounts compared with other rivers. The NPase hydrolyzed OP % was up to 100% in 2006 and 2007 water samples. The average of NPase% was 59% in 2006 and 73% in 2007. The NPase average concentrations were 348 μg?L–1 in 2006, and 175 μg?L–1 in 2007. The NPase hydrolyzed up to 100% of OP% in the Bronx River water samples at 37?C, indicating a potential threat of eutrophication of freshwater systems as the global rise in temperature may continue to occur.

Cite this paper

J. Wang and H. Pant, "Estimation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in the Water Column of the Bronx River, New York," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 316-323. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.34040.


[1] C. Neal, H. P. Jarvie, W. R. J. illiams, M. Neal, H. Wickham and L. Hill, “Phosphorus-Calcium Carbonate Saturation Relationships in a Lowland Chalk River Impacted by Sewage Inputs and Phosphorus Remediation: An As- sessment of Phosphorus Self-Cleaning Mechanisms in Natural Waters,” Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 282-283, 2002, pp. 295-310. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00920-2
[2] J. Wang and H. K. Pant, “Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Organic Phosphorus in River Bed Sediments,” Ecological Engineering, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2010, pp. 963-968. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.03.006
[3] R. E. Hecky and P. Kilham, “Nutrient Limitation of Phyto- plankton in Freshwater and Marine Environments: A Re- view of Recent Evidences of Effects of Enrichment,” Lim- nology and Oceanography, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1988, pp. 796-822. doi:10.4319/lo.1988.33.4_part_2.0796
[4] P. Monbet, I. D. McKelvie and P. J. Worsfold, “Dis- solved Organic Phosphorus Speciation in the Waters of the Tamar Estuary (SW England),” Geochimica et Cos- mochimica Acta, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1027-1038. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.024
[5] D. J. Correll, “Phosphorus: A Rate Limiting Nutrient in Surface Waters,” Poultry Science, Vol. 78, No. 5, 1999, pp. 674-682.
[6] A. C. Edwards and P. J. A. Withers, “Soil Phosphorus Management and Water Quality: A UK Perspective,” Soil Use and Management, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1998, pp. 124-130. doi:10.1111/J.1475-2743.1998.TB00630.X
[7] V. H. Smith, G. D. Tilman and J. C. Nekola, “Eutrophica- tion: Impacts of Excess Nutrient Inputs on Freshwater, Marine, and Terrestrial Ecosystems,” Environmental Pol- lution, Vol. 100, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 179-196. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00091-3
[8] C. Neal, H. P. Jarvie, S. M. Howarth, P. G. Whitehead, R. J. Williams, M. Neal, M. Harrow and H. Wickham, “The Water Quality of the River Kennet: Initial Observations on a Lowland Chalk Stream Impacted by Sewage Inputs and Phosphorus Remediation,” Science of Total Envi- ronment, Vol. 251-252, 2000, pp. 477-496. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00400-9
[9] C. Neal, W. A. House, G. J. L. Leeks, B. A. Whitton and R. J. Williams, “Conclusions to the Special Issue of Sci- ence of the Total Environment Concerning ‘The Water Quality of UK Rivers Entering the North Sea’,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 251-252, 2000, pp. 557-573. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00395-8
[10] W. A. House, T. D. Jickells, A. C. Edwards, K. E. Praska and E. H. Denison, “Reactions of Phosphorus with Sedi- ments in Fresh and Marine Waters.” Soil Use and Man- agement, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1998, pp. 139-146. doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.1998.tb00632.x
[11] F. I. Ormaza-Gonzalez and P. J. Statham, “A Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Dissolved and Par- ticulate Phosphorus in Natural Waters,” Water Research, Vol. 30, No. 11, 1996, pp. 2739-2747. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(96)00081-4
[12] P. J. A. Withers and H. P. Jarvie, “Delivery and Cycling of Phosphorus in Rivers: A Review,” Science of the To- tal Environment, Vol. 400, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 379-395. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.08.002
[13] M. J. Bowes, W. A. House and R. A. Hodgkinson, “Phos- phorus Dynamics along a River Continuum,” Science of total Environment, Vol. 313, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 199-212. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00260-2
[14] S. R. Carpenter, N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. How- arth, A. N. Sharpley and V. H. Smith, “Nonpoint Pollu- tion of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen,” Ecological Applications, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1998, pp. 559-568. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0559:NPOSWW]2.0.CO;2
[15] A. M. Duda, “Addressing Nonpoint Sources of Water- Pollution must Become an International Priority,” Water Science Technology, Vol. 28, No. 3-5, 1993, pp. 1-11.
[16] H. P. Jarvie, C. Neal, D. V. Leach, G. P. Ryland, W. A. House and A. J. Robson, “Major Ion Concentrations and the Inorganic Carbon Chemistry of the Humber Rivers,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 194-195, 2007, pp. 285- 302. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(96)05371-5
[17] J. Wang and H. K. Pant, “Identification of Organic Phos- phorus Compounds in the Bronx River Bed Sediments by Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectros- copy,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 171, No. 1-4, 2010, pp. 309-319 doi:10.1007/s10661-009-1280-3
[18] J. Wang, H. K. Pant, “Phosphorus Sorption Characteris- tics of the Bronx River Bed Sediments,” Chemical Speci- ation and Bioavailability, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2010, pp. 171- 181. doi:10.3184/095422910X12827492153851
[19] J. J. Maynard, A. T. O’Green and R. A. Dahlgren, “Bioavailability and Fate of Phosphorus in Constructed Wetlands Receiving Agricultural Runoff in San Joaquin Valley, California,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2009, pp. 360-372. doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0088
[20] Bronx River, “Use and Standards Attainment Project Preliminary Waterbody/Watershed Characterization Re- port, 2006.
[21] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “ESS Method 310.1: Ortho-Phosphorus, Dissolved Automated, Ascor- bic Acid,” Environmental Sciences Section Inorganic Chem- istry Unit, Madison, 1992.
[22] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Method 365.4. Determination of Total Phosphorus in Kjeldahl Digestion by Semi Automated Colorimetry,” Brazos River Author- ity, Waco, 2003.
[23] M. A. Tabatabai, “Soil Enzymes,” In: A. L. Miller and R. H. Keeney, Eds., Chemical and Microbiological Prop- erties, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1982, pp. 903-947.
[24] H. K. Pant, K. R. Reddy and F. E. Dierberg, “Bioavail- ability of Organic Phosphorus in a Submerged Aquatic Vegetation-Dominated Treatment Wetland,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1748- 1756. doi:10.2134/jeq2002.1748
[25] G. S. Toor, L. M. Condron, H. J. Di, K. C. Cameron and B. J. Cade-Menun, “Characterization of Organic Phos- phorus in Leachate from a Grassland Soil,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 35, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1317-1323. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00202-5
[26] E. Spitzer, “Reducing harmful phosphorus pllution in the New York City Reservoirs through the Clean Water Act’s ‘Total Maximum Daily Load’ Requirements: A Case Study of the New Croton Reservoir and Recommendation to EPA. Phosphorus Loads in the NYC Watershed Reser- voirs,” 2006.
[27] H. M. Kunishi and D. E. Glotfelty, “Sediment, Season, and Salinity Effects on Phosphorus Concentration in an Estuary,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1985, pp. 292-296. doi:10.2134/jeq1985.00472425001400020027x
[28] P. Vervier, S. Bonvallet-Garay, S. Sauvage, H. M. Valett and J. M. Sanchez-Perez, “Influence of the Hyporheic Zone on the Phosphorus Dynamics of a Large Gravel-Bed River, Garonne River, France,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1801-1812. doi:10.1002/hyp.7319
[29] M. D. McDaniel and M. B. David, “Relationships be- tween Benthic Sediments and Water Column Phosphorus in Illinois Streams,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2009, pp. 607-617. doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0094
[30] D. J. Evans and P. J. Johnes, “Physico-Chemical Controls on Phosphorus Cycling in two Lowland Streams. Part 1—The Water Column,” Science of the Total Environ- ment, Vol. 329, No. 1-3, 2004, pp. 145-163. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.02.018
[31] D. L. Correll, “Eutrophication trends in the water quality of the Rhode River (1971-1978),” In: B. J. Neilson and L. E. Cronin, Eds., Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, pp. 425-435.
[32] N. T. W. Ellwood, S. M. Haile and B. A. Whitton, “Aquatic Plant Nutrients, Moss Phosphatase Activities and Tissue Composition in Four Upland Streams in Northern Eng- land,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 350, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 246-260. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.038
[33] E. K. Schendel, H. Schreier and L. M. Lavkulich, “Link- ages between Phosphorus Index Estimates and Environ- mental Quality Indicators,” Journal of Soil and Water Con- servation, Vol. 59, No. 6, 2004, pp. 243-251.
[34] B. L. Turner, R. Baxter and B. A. Whitton, “Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Soil Solutions and Drainage Streams in Upper Teesdale, Northern England: Implications of Or- ganic Compounds for Biological Nutrient Limitation,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 314-316, 2003, pp. 153-170.
[35] A. J. Wade, C. Neal, C. Soulsby, R. Smart, S. J. Langan and M. S. Cresser, “Modeling Stream Water Quality un- der Varying Hydrological Conditions at Different Spacial Scales,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 217, No. 3-4, 1999, pp. 266-283. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(98)00295-9
[36] J. P. Grover, “Phosphorus-Dependent Growth Kinetics of 11 Species of Freshwater Algae,” Limnology and Ocean- ography, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1989, pp. 341-348. doi:10.4319/lo.1989.34.2.0341
[37] H. K. Pant and P. R. Warman, “Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Soil Organic Phosphorus by Immobilized Phosphatases,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2000, pp. 306-311. doi:10.1007/s003740050008
[38] C. A. Shand and S. Smith, “Enzymatic Release of Phos- Phate from Model Substrates and P Compounds in Soil Solution from a Peaty Podzol,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997, pp. 183-187. doi:10.1007/s003740050229
[39] H. Kobori and N. Taga, “Phosphatase Activity and Its Role in the Mineralization of Organic Phosporus in Coastal Sea Water,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1977, pp. 23-29. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(79)90098-4

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.